Table 1

Characteristics for studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

AuthorCountrySample size (n)Study typeStudy periodAge, yearMale (%)Covariates adjusted forQoEQuality score
Zhang12China3430Cohort31 Dec 2019–20 Feb 2020Median: 64 (IQR: 55–68)53Age, sex, diabetes, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic renal disease, in-hospital medications (antiviral drug and lipid-lowering drug).Moderate9
Huang27China50Cohort7 Feb 2020–3 Mar 202054Low7
Mancia28Italy37 031Case–control21 Feb 2020–11 Mar 2020Mean: 69 (SD: 13)63Age, sex, comorbidities and exposure to treatments.Moderate8
Li29China1178Cohort15 Jan 2020–15 Mar 2020Median: 56 (IQR: 38–67)46Medium8
Mehta26United States18 472Cohort8 Mar 2020–12 Apr 2020Mean: 49 (SD: 21)40Moderate7
Meng30China417Cohort11 Jan 2020–23 Feb 2020Median: 64.5 (IQR: 55.8–69.0)57Moderate8
Zhang31China90CohortAge, sex, days from symptom onset to hospital admission, and exposure to treatments.Low7
Guo32China187Cohort23 Jan 2020–23 Feb 2020Mean: 59 (SD: 14.66)49Moderate7
Bean33England1200Cohort1 Mar 2020–13 Apr 2020Mean: 68 (SD: 17)57Age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and ischaemic heart disease/heart failure.Moderate9
Zeng11China247Cohort5 Jan 2020–8 Mar 2020Moderate8
Yang34China251Cohort5 Jan 2020–3 Mar 2020Moderate8
Richardson35United States5700Case series1 Mar 2020–4 Apr 2020Median: 63 (IQR 52–75)60Moderate8
Ip36United States3017CohortModerate8
Fosbøl37Denmark4480Cohort1 Feb 2020–4 May 2020Median: 54.7 (IQR 40.9–72.0)48Age, sex; education; income; history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, kidney disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, COPD, and malignancy; and use other antihypertensive drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, anticoagulants, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.Moderate9
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; QoE, quality of evidence.