Table 4

30-day complications

All (%)Replacement
(%)
Repair (%)P valueAll (%)Replacement (%)Repair (%)P value
N=745N=238N=507N=745N=238N=507
Any complications
Patients with ≥1 minor or major complication388 (52.1)228 (45.0)160 (67.2)<0.001
Minor complicationsMajor complications
Patients with ≥1 minor complication378 (50.7)221 (43.6)157 (66.0)<0.001Patients with ≥1 major complication95 (12.8)41 (17.2)54 (10.7)0.001
Transient ischaemic attack16 (2.1)6 (2.5)10 (2.0)0.63130-day mortality9 (1.2)7 (2.9)2 (0.4)0.012
Delirium28 (3.8)21 (8.8)7 (1.4)<0.001Conversion to sternotomy‡6 (0.8)3 (1.3)3 (0.6)0.352
New atrial fibrillation111 (23.5)44 (18.5)67 (13.2)0.061Myocardial infarction <48 hours9 (1.2)2 (0.8)7 (1.4)0.533
New pacemaker14 (1.9)8 (3.4)6 (1.2)0.051Myocardial infarction >48 hours2 (0.3)1 (0.4)1 (0.2)0.592
Pericardial effusion*10 (1.3)3 (1.3)7 (1.4)0.894Stroke2 (0.3)1 (0.4)1 (0.20.592
Pleural effusion*26 (3.5)12 (5.0)14 (2.8)0.119Renal injury, AKIN class II–III16 (2.1)6 (2.5)10 (2.0)0.631
Pneumothorax*9 (1.2)5 (2.1)4 (0.8)0.142Re-intervention for:
Pneumonia11 (1.5)4 (1.7)7 (1.4)0.752Early bleeding (<7 days)49 (6.6)21 (8.8)28 (5.5)0.093
Urinary tract infection28 (3.8)16 (6.7)12 (2.4)0.005Late bleeding (>7 days)5 (0.7)3 (1.3)2 (0.4)0.201
Other infections9 (1.6)7 (2.9)2 (0.4)0.012Pericardial effusion (>7 days)3 (0.4)1 (0.4)2 (0.4)0.959
Groin infection2 (0.3)2 (0.8)0 (0.0)0.970Failed repair5 (0.7)0 (0.0)5 (1.0)0.972
Groin seroma*1 (0.4)5 (1.0)0.434Other§6 (0.8)3 (1.3)3 (0.6)0.352
Renal injury, AKIN class I6 (0.8)10 (4.2)7 (1.4)0.022Prolonged ventilation >48 hours5 (0.7)2 (0.8)3 (0.6)0.700
Phrenic nerve palsy17 (2.3)2 (0.8)9 (1.8)0.335LCOS with mechanical support4 (0.5)2 (0.8)2 (0.4)0.448
LCOS <48 hours11 (1.5)25 (10.5)30 (5.9)0.028LCOS >48 hours6 (0.8)2 (0.8)4 (0.8)0.942
Blood transfusion†55 (7.4)104 (43.7)126 (24.9)<0.001
  • LCOS: low cardiac output syndrome, requiring any inotropes for >30 min to maintain systolic blood pressure at greater than 90 mm Hg and cardiac output.

  • *Requiring drainage.

  • †Number of patients who needed 1 or more units of packet cells during admission on ICU or ward.

  • ‡Unintended conversions: 2 iatrogenic aortic dissections, 3 perioperative bleeding and 1 right ventricular failure.

  • §Other re-interventions: 1 empyema, 1 left ventricular wall rupture, 1 endocarditis, 1 removal stuck epicardial pacemaker wire, 1 iatrogenic lung lesion, 1 pleural effusion.