Table 1

Levels of minimally invasive cardiac surgery

Level 1Direct vision: (10–15 cm incisions)
Level 2Direct vision/video assisted with mini incisions (4–6 cm)
Level 3Video directed and robot assisted with micro incisions (1.5–4 cm)
Level 4Robotic (computer telemanipulation) and totally endoscopic port incisions (<1.5 cm)
  • Adapted from Chitwood et al.9