Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the overall study cohort and according to Fried frailty status

Total cohort (n=150)Fried frailty phenotypeP value
Non-frail n=19Pre-frail n=89Frail n=42
Age83.7±3.282.2±1.883.6±3.384.4±3.40.04
Sex
 Female51 (34.0%)3 (15.8%)29 (32.6%)19 (45.2%)0.07
Body mass index27.3±4.726.2±2.827.2±4.627.9±5.50.41
Medical history
 Hypertension102 (68%)13 (68.4%)61 (68.5%)28 (66.7%)0.98
 Diabetes mellitus40 (26.7%)4 (21.1%)25 (28.1%)11 (26.2%)0.27
 Previous myocardial infarction65 (43.3%)5 (26.3%)34 (38.2%)26 (61.9%)0.01
 Previous PCI53 (35.3%)5 (26.3%)28 (31.5%)20 (47.6%)0.13
 Previous CABG18 (12%)2 (10.5%)9 (10.1%)7 (16.7%)0.55
 h/o CKD10 (6.7%)0 (0.0%)6 (6.7%)4 (9.5%)0.03
70 (46.7%)13 (68.4%)46 (51.7%)11 (26.2%)
69 (46%)6 (31.6%)37 (41.6%)26 (61.6%)
1 (0.7%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (2.4%)
Charlson comorbidity score6.5±2.245.9±1.66.2±2.27.5±2.40.005
Presentation68 (45.3%)10 (52.6%)44 (49.4%)14 (33.3%)0.73
16 (10.7%)2 (10.5%)9 (10.1%)5 (11.9%)
45 (30%)5 (26.3%)24 (26.9%)16 (38.1%)
21 (14%)2 (10.52%)12 (13.5%)7 (16.7%)
CCS angina class12 (8.0%)2 (10.5%)6 (6.7%)4 (9.5%)0.03
19 (12.7%)4 (21.1%)9 (10.1%)6 (14.3%)
41 (27.3%)9 (47.4%)28 (31.5%)4 (9.5%)
50 (33.3%)2 (10.5%)32 (36.0%)16 (38.1%)
28 (18.7%)2 (10.5%)14 (15.7%)12 (28.6%)
NYHA class10 (6.7%)4 (21.1%)6 (6.7%)0 (0%)<0.001
87 (58%)12 (63.2%)58 (65.2%)17 (40.5%)
44 (29.3%)3 (15.8%)24 (27.0%)17 (40.5%)
9 (6%)0 (0%)1 (1.1%)8 (19.0%)
LV function (n=111)55 (49.5%)7 (46.7%)29 (45.3%)20 (57.1%)0.50
25 (22.5%)2 (13.3%)15 (23.4%)9 (25.7%)
20 (18%)3 (20%)12 (18.8%)5 (14.3%)
11 (9.9)3 (20.0%)8 (12.5%)1 (2.9%)
ECG24 (16%)2 (10.5%)11 (12.4%)11 (26.2%)0.10
Blood parameters126±18 (123-129)126±4 (117–135)128±2 (124–132)122±2 (118–127)0.32
52.6±19.9 (49.4–55.8)55.3±3.2 (48.5–62.1)54.3±2.1 (50.2–58.4)47.8±3.5 (40.7–54.9)0.18
34±6 (34–35)36±1 (34–38)35±1 (33–36)33±1 (32–35)0.16
13±29 (7-19)14±8 (4–32)7±3 (2–13)23±7 (9–36)0.05
41.6±25.8 (36.1–47.2)51.6±5.4 (39.5–63.6)41.3±3.9 (33.5–49.1)37.9±5.0 (27.5–48.3)0.34
2259±506 (1254–3265)1332±611 (30–2695)1941±629 (677–3205)3215±1131 (895–5535)0.44
Coronary angiogramn=84n=10n=45n=290.40
13 (15.5%)2 (20%)5 (11.1%)6 (20.7%)
37 (44.0%)6 (60%)18 (40%)13 (44.8%)
34 (40.5%)2 (20%)22 (48.9%)10 (34.5%)
Management84 (56.0%)10 (52.6%)51 (57.3%)23 (54.8%)0.13
51 (34%)8 (42.1%)25 (28.1%)18 (42.9%)
15 (10%)1 (5.3%)13 (14.6%)1 (2.4%)
Predicted in-hospital mortality risk (GRACE score)5.2%±8.6%3.1%±3.3%4.4%±7.1%7.7%±12.0%0.06
Predicted 1-year mortality risk (GRACE score)15.2±14.711%±7%14%±12%20±200.01
Operative mortality risk (EuroScore II)5.0%±4.8%3.9%±4.0%4.0%±3.7%7.4%±6.4%<0.01
SF-12 PCS score37.1±10.743.5±7.638.8±11.330.5±7.10.005
SF-12 MCS score51.7±11.357.1±6.452.7±10.747.4±12.80.003
  • Data presented as mean±SD or n (%).

  • CABG, coronary artery bypass graft surgery; CCS, Canadian Cardiovascular Society; CKD, chronic kidney disease; GRACE, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events; h/o, history of; LV, left ventricle; SF-12 MCS, Short form-12 mental composite score; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; ; SF-12 PCS, Short form-12 physical composite score.