Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to index BAV priority

OverallElectiveUrgentEmergencyP value
N167797216
Age (IQR)80.0 (73.0 to 86.0)81.0 (73.0 to 87.0)81.0 (74.0 to 87.0)74.5 (69.5 to 77.2)0.011
Male (%)87 (52.1)40 (50.6)38 (52.8)9 (56.2)0.909
Hypertension (%)100 (59.9)48 (60.8)42 (58.3)10 (62.5)0.931
Ischaemic heart disease (%)67 (40.1)28 (35.4)31 (43.1)8 (50.0)0.443
Previous MI (%)38 (22.8)15 (19.0)19 (26.4)4 (25.0)0.542
Previous PCI (%)22 (13.2)10 (12.7)9 (12.5)3 (18.8)0.786
Previous CABG (%)31 (18.6)18 (22.8)9 (12.5)4 (25.0)0.210
Cerebrovascular disease (%)20 (12.0)10 (12.7)8 (11.1)2 (12.5)0.956
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)<0.001
 >60 (%)88 (52.7)53 (67.1)30 (41.7)5 (31.2)
 30–59 (%)55 (32.9)22 (27.8)29 (40.3)4 (25.0)
 <30 (%)20 (12.0)4 (5.1)10 (13.9)6 (37.5)
 Haemodialysis4 (2.4)0 (0.0)3 (4.2)1 (6.2)
Diabetes (%)43 (25.7)17 (21.5)24 (33.3)2 (12.5)0.112
Pulmonary disease (%)47 (28.1)24 (30.4)18 (25.0)5 (31.2)0.732
Peripheral vascular disease (%)22 (13.2)13 (16.5)9 (12.5)0 (0.0)0.202
Prior pacemaker (%)9 (5.4)2 (2.5)7 (9.7)0 (0.0)0.089
LVEF (%)<0.001
 >50%64 (38.8)47 (60.3)14 (19.7)3 (18.8)
30%–50%47 (28.5)15 (19.2)30 (42.3)2 (12.5)
 <30%54 (32.7)16 (20.5)27 (38.0)11 (68.8)
Smoking history0.529
 No (%)101 (68.2)51 (69.9)40 (63.5)10 (83.3)
 Ex (%)38 (25.7)19 (26.0)18 (28.6)1 (8.3)
 Yes (%)9 (6.1)3 (4.1)5 (7.9)1 (8.3)
Peak gradient (mm Hg) (IQR)70.0 (57.0 to 80.0)71.0 (56.2 to 84.0)70.0 (58.0 to 79.0)66.5 (54.8 to 73.8)0.78
Mean gradient (mm Hg) (IQR)42.0 (30.0 to 50.0)42.5 (32.8 to 52.0)43.5 (30.0 to 49.2)38.0 (31.0 to 47.0)0.655
NYHA class *0.001
 I (%)5 (3.7)2 (2.5)1 (1.7)2 (20)
 II (%)41 (30.4)29 (36.7)9 (15.5)3 (30)
 III (%)68 (50.3)31 (39.2)34 (58.6)3 (30)
 IV (%)21 (15.5)5 (6.3)14 (24.1)2 (20)
Improved symptoms (%)†75 (62.5)43 (70.5)25 (52.1)7 (63.6)0.143
Repeat intervention<0.001
 None100 (59.9)45 (57.0)48 (66.7)7 (43.8)
 BAV (%)9 (5.4)3 (3.8)5 (6.9)1 (6.2)
 Surgical AVR (%)16 (9.6)4 (5.1)4 (5.6)8 (50.0)
 TAVI (%)42 (25.1)27 (34.6)15 (20.8)0 (0.0)
  • *135 patients in total with available NYHA class, 67 in the elective group, 58 in the urgent group and 10 in the emergency group.

  • †120 patients in total with available symptomatic status post index BAV, 75 of these had symptom improvement, 43 in the elective group, 25 in the urgent group and 7 in the emergency group.

  • .AVR, aortic valve replacement; BAV, balloon aortic valvuloplasty; CABG, coronary artery bypass surgery; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MI, myocardial infarction; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; TAVI, transcatheter aortic valve implantation.