Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Women n=332Men n=790
Age, years71.0 (65.0–77.8)67.0 (60.0–73.0)
Body mass index, kg/m227.0 (24.1–31.8)27.8 (25.2–31.5)
Heart rate, min−193.0 (79.8–114.0)91.0 (74.0–115.0)
Alcohol overuse, n (%)23 (6.9)110 (13.9)
Prior cardioversion and/or RFA, n (%)99 (29.8)292 (36.9)
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Hypertension195 (58.7)481 (60.9)
 Diabetes28 (8.4)114 (14.4)
 COPD58 (17.9)78 (10.1)
Clinical scores, n (%)
 CHA2DS2-VASc
 023 (6.9)83 (10.5)
 110 (3.0)200 (25.3)
 ≥2299 (90.1)507 (64.2)
 HAS-BLED
 063 (19.0)299 (29.0)
 1192 (57.8)360 (45.6)
 ≥277 (23.2)201 (25.4)
Blood tests
 Thyroid-stimulating hormone, IU/L1.5 (0.9–2.4)1.6 (1.1–2.4)
 Haemoglobin, g/L136.9 (127.2–148.1)148.1 (136.9–156.2)
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m266.0 (54.0–81.0)72.0 (61.0–84.0)
Echocardiographic data
 Left ventricular ejection fraction, n (%)
 ≥40 %280 (84.6)592 (75.0)
 <40%51 (15.4)197 (25.0)
 Left atrial diameter, cm4.2 (3.8–4.5)4.3 (4.0–4.7)
Medication, n (%)
 Antiarrhythmic drugs
 Class Ic11 (3.4)27 (3.5)
 Class III61 (18.8)142 (18.3)
 Beta-blocker262 (80.6)573 (73.9)
 Non-dihydropyridine channel blocker16 (4.9)50 (6.5)
 Digoxin90 (27.8)124 (16.0)
 ACEI or ARB148 (45.5)392 (50.6)
  • Data are median (25%–75% percentiles) or counts (percentages).

  • Missing data: body mass index 0.5%; heart rate 1.0%; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 2.0%; thyroid-stimulating hormone 5.9%; haemoglobin 1.0%; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 0.9%; left ventricular ejection fraction 0.2%; left atrial diameter 2.7%; antiarrhythmic drugs 2.0%; beta-blocker 2.0%; non-dihydropyridine channel blockers, 2.0%; digoxin 2.0%; ACE inhibitor (ACEI) 2.0%; angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) 2.7%.

  • CHA2DS2-VASc: Congestive heart failure, hypertension, age≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke, tia or thromboembolism, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, and female sex. HAS-BLED: Hypertension, abnormal renal or liver function, prior history of stroke, prior major bleeding, labile INR, age>65 years, and drugs or alcohol.

  • RFA, radiofrequency ablation.