Table 3

Clinical, paraclinical and therapeutic characteristics of cardiomyopathy cases observed with transthoracic ultrasonography at Cayenne General Hospital between 1 January 2009 and 1 June 2014

Cardiomyopathies globalMorphological anomalyFunctional anomaly
HypertrophicDilatedMixedNon-classifiedNon-classifiable
N=182, n (%)N=27, n (%)N=114, n (%)N=27, n (%)N=1, n (%)N=13, n (%)
Clinical characteristics at inclusion
Stage of chronic cardiac failure60 (33.0)5 (18.5)44 (38.6)10 (37.0)0 (0.0)1 (7.7)
 Dyspnea according to NYHA score
 Median (IQR)2 (1–4)2 (1–3)2 (1–4)3 (1–4)1 (1–1)2 (1–4)
 Patients with score>2 n (%)85 (46.7)10 (37.0)56 (49.1)14 (51.9)0 (0.0)5 (38.5)
Acute clinical presentation*145 (79.7)21 (77.8)89 (78.1)22 (81.5)1 (100.0)12 (92.3)
 Acute cardiacfailure118 (64.8)12 (44.4)81 (71.1)19 (70.4)0 (0.0)6 (46.2)
 Rythm and/or conduction anomaly57 (31.3)6 (22.2)34 (29.8)8 (29.6)1 (100.0)8 (61.5)
 Stroke5 (2.8)2 (7.4)2 (1.8)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (7.7)
 Chest pain5 (2.8)2 (7.4)3 (2.6)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Fainting or syncope5 (2.8)3 (11.1)0 (0.0)2 (7.4)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Hemorrage4 (2.2)0 (0.0)3 (2.6)1 (3.7)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Others†6 (3.3)2 (7.4)4 (3.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
History of complications of CMP *59 (32.4)6 (22.2)41 (36.0)9 (33.3)0 (0.0)3 (23.1)
 Acute cardiac failure37 (20.3)3 (11.1)27 (23.7)7 (26.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Rythm and/or conduction anomaly31 (17.0)0 (0.0)23 (20.2)6 (22.2)0 (0.0)2 (15.4)
 Stroke7 (3.9)1 (3.7)3 (2.6)2 (7.4)0 (0.0)1 (7.7)
 Pace maker or internal defibrillator6 (3.3)0 (0.0)6 (5.3)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Chronic cardiac failure1 (0.5)1 (3.7)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Heart transplant1 (0.5)0 (0.0)1 (0.9)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Others‡9 (4.9)1 (3.7)5 (4.4)2 (7.4)0 (0.0)1 (7.7)
Paraclinical characteristics at inclusion
Ejection fraction of left ventricule (in %)§
 Median (IQR)35 (26–43)55 (38–71)30 (22–37)42 [30-54]Uncalculable40 (25–40)
 Range10–8027–8010–7018–6350–5022–66
 Ejection fraction <40%130 (73.5)7 (25.9)100 (87.7)13 (48.1)010 (77.0)
Ultrasonographic functional profile
 Systolic cardiac failure123 (67.6)10 (37.0)89 (78.1)14 (51.9)0 (0.0)10 (77.0)
 Diastolic cardiac failure6 (3.3)2 (7.4)0 (0.0)1 (3.7)0 (0.0)3 (23.0)
 Systolo-diastolic cardiac failure5 (2.7)0 (0.0)3 (2.6)2 (7.4)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Normal48 (26.4)15 (55.6)22 (19.3)10 (37.0)1 (100.0)0 (0.0)
Therapeutic characteristics at inclusion
Ongoing treatment*91 (50.0)12 (44.4)61 (53.5)12 (44.4)0(0.0)6 (46.2)
 Antihypertensive drugs (apart from diuretics and beta-blockers)76 (41.8)10 (37.0)50 (43.9)12 (44.4)0(0.0)4 (30.8)
 Diuretics57 (31.3)6 (22.2)43 (37.7)6 (22.2)0(0.0)2 (15.4)
 Beta-blockers42 (23.1)5 (18.5)29 (25.4)5 (18.5)0(0.0)3 (23.1)
 Antiplatelet aggregants28 (15.4)5 (18.5)17 (14.9)4 (14.8)0(0.0)2 (15.4)
 Anticoagulation14 (7.7)0 (0.0)11 (9.7)2 (7.4)0(0.0)1 (7.7)
 Antiarrythmics13 (7.1)0 (0.0)11 (9.7)2 (7.4)0(0.0)0(0.0)
 Intervention11 (6.0)0(0.0)9 (7.8)2 (8.0)0(0.0)0(0.0)
  Rhythmological apparatus7 (3.9)0(0.0)7 (6.1)0(0.0)0(0.0)0(0.0)
  Cardiac surgery2 (1.0)0(0.0)0(0.0)2 (7.4)0(0.0)0(0.0)
  Cardioversion1 (0.5)0(0.0)1 (0.9)0(0.0)0(0.0)0(0.0)
  Heart transplant1 (0.5)0(0.0)1 (0.9)0(0.0)0(0.0)0(0.0)
  • The ’Mixed’ morphological group includes 23 patients presenting at the same time hypertrophic and dilated morphology, 3 patients presenting at the same time a dilated and unclassified morphologies and 1 presenting at the same time hypertrophic and unclassified morphologies.

  • The functional impairment is defined by a systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction, diagnosed during transthoracic ultrasonography, without associations with a morphological anomaly, hypertension or valvulopathy, or coronaropathy, or congenital malformation.

  • *A single patient can present one or more events.

  • †The category ’others’ regroups the following events: complication of heart transplant, undocumented palpitation episode, myopericarditis episodes, thromboembolic accident and acute coronary syndrome.

  • ‡The category ‘others’ regroups events in relation with arteriovenous thromboembolic disease, intervention (surgery or radiofrequency) and the occurrence of other cardiac symptoms (loss of consciousness during effort and acute coronary syndrome).

  • §The method measuring the ejection fraction of the left ventricule was found for 157 of 200 patients. It was a measure using Simpson’s method (64.3%), Teicholz’s method (33.8%), visual (0.6%), apex four cavities (0.6%) and disc summation method mono four cavities (0.6%). Reported ejection fractions are reported globally, independently from the clinical presentation.

  • CMP, cardiomyopathies .