Table 1

Lifestyle and risk factor outcomes in patients following an acute cardiac event comparing those who attended and those who did not attend cardiac rehabilitation

Attended cardiac rehabilitation
n=800
Did not attend cardiac rehabilitation
n=368
All patients**
n=1177
M
629
F
171
All
800
M
268
F
100
All
368
M
903
F
274
All
1177
n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)n (%)
Current smoker48 (7.6)7 (4.1)55 (6.9)32 (11.9)11 (11.0)43 (11.7)*83 (9.2)19 (6.9)102 (8.7)
Smoker at index event107 (17.0)32 (18.7)139 (17.4)53 (19.8)20 (20.0)73 (19.8)163 (18.1)53 (19.3)216 (18.4)
Persistent smoker‡46 (43.0)7 (21.9)53 (38.1)30 (56.6)11 (55.0)41 (56.2)79 (48.5)19 (35.9)98 (45.4)
Not achieving physical activity guidelines278 (45.1)103 (62.1)381 (48.7)149 (58.2)64 (64.7)213 (60.0)**428 (48.9)169 (63.1)***597 (52.2)
Overweight488 (77.7)126 (74.1)614 (76.9)213 (79.8)83 (83.0)296 (80.7)705 (78.4)212 (77.7)917 (78.2)
Obese221 (35.2)62 (36.5)283 (35.5)95 (35.6)43 (43.0)138 (37.6)316 (35.2)106 (38.8)422 (36.0)
Centrally overweight446 (71.4)146 (85.9)592 (74.5)192 (72.5)85 (87.6)277 (76.5)671 (71.7)234 (86.7)***875 (75.2)
Centrally obese296 (47.4)105 (61.8)401 (50.4)135 (50.9)76 (78.4)211 (58.3)432 (48.3)184 (68.2)***616 (52.9)
BP ≥140/90 mm Hg181 (28.8)46 (26.9)227 (28.4)92 (34.3)30 (30.0)122 (33.2)275 (30.5)79 (28.8)354 (30.1)
BP ≥130/80 mm Hg363 (57.7)89 (52.1)452 (56.5)158 (59.0)58 (58.0)216 (58.7)525 (58.2)150 (54.7)675 (57.4)
LDL-C ≥1.8 mmol/L334 (56.4)110 (66.7)444 (58.7)163 (69.9)66 (74.2)229 (66.6)†500 (58.7)177 (68.9)**677 (61.0)
Non-HDL-C ≥2.5 mmol/L292 (48.6)103 (62.1)395 (51.5)143 (55.2)65 (69.2)208 (58.9)†439 (50.7)169 *** (64.3)609 (53.9)
Self-reported diabetes127 (20.3)34 (20.1)161 (20.3)79 (29.5)23 (23.0)102 (27.7)209 (23.3)58 (21.3)267 (22.8)
HbA1c ≥7% (≥53 mmol/mol in self-reported diabetes)47 (7.9)18 (10.8)65 (8.5)43 (16.7)11 (11.7)54 (15.4)92 (10.7)29 (11.0)121 0.8)
 OGTT: IGT122 (19.7)39 (23.4)161 (20.5)31 (11.7)20 (20.2)51 (14.0)153 (17.2)59 (21.9)212 (18.3)
 IFG79 (12.8)18 (10.8)97 (12.3)25 (9.4)8 (8.1)33 (9.0)104 (11.7)27 (10.0)131 (11.3)
 New diabetes94 (15.2)21 (12.6)115 (14.6)44 16.5)11 (11.1)55 (15.1)138 (15.5)32 (11.9)170 (14.7)
Antiplatelet603 (95.9)165 (96.5)768 (96.0)243 (91.0)88 (88.0)331 (90.2)*849 (94.4)256 (93.4)1105 (94.2)
Beta blocker503 (80.1)129 (75.4)632 (79.1)199 (75.1)68 (68.0)267 (73.2)704 (78.6)198 (72.3)902 (77.1)
ACE402 (63.9)87 (50.9)489 (61.1)160 (59.9)53 (53.0)213 (58.0)565 (62.9)142 (51.8)707 (60.3)
ARB98 (15.6)41 (24.0)139 (17.4)36 (13.5)18 (18.0)54 (14.8)134 (14.9)60 (21.9)194 (16.6)
Other BP-lowering drugs166 (26.4)51 (29.8)217 (27.1)93 (34.8)34 (34.0)127 (34.6)261 (29.0)86 (31.4)347 (29.6)
Statins545 (86.8)143 (83.0)687 (86.0)225 (84.6)75 (75.0)300 (82.0)773 (86.2)220 (80.3)993 (84.8)
Other lipid-lowering drugs29 (4.6)9 (5.3)38 (4.8)16 (6.0)5 (5.0)21 (5.7)45 (5.0)14 (5.1)59 (5.0)
Drug adherence§
 BP lowering584/588 (99.3)158/159 (99.4)742/747 (99.3)95/101 (94.1)30/31 (96.8)125/132 (94.7)818/835 (98.0)244/246 (99.2)1062/1081 (98.2)
 Lipid lowering528/532 (99.3)149/150 (99.3)677/682 (99.3)91/93 (97.9)28/29 (96.6)119/122 (97.5)744/756 (98.4)232/234 (99.2)990/976 (98.6)
 Glucose lowering169/178 (94.9)46/47 (97.9)215/225 (95.6)34/35 (97.1)10/11 (90.9)44/46 (95.7)261/273 (95.6)74/76 (97.4)335/349 (96.0)
HADS
Anxiety ≥8
123 (19.8)54 (32.3)177 (22.4)51 (19.5)39 (39.8)90 (25.1)176 (19.8)94 (35.1)270 (23.4)
HADS
Depression ≥8
75 (12.1)17 (10.2)92 (11.7)38 (14.6)24 (24.4)62 (17.3)113 (12.7)41 (15.3)154 (13.3)
EQ-VAS out of 100¶80 (70, 90)80 (60, 90)80 (70, 90)80 (65, 90)75 (50, 90)76 (60, 90)80 (70, 90)75 (60, 90)80 (68, 90)
  • *P=0.006; **p=0.003; ***p<0.001.

  • †P=0.02.

  • ‡Persistent smoker: smoking at hospital admission and still smoking at interview.

  • §Medication adherence denominator included due to variation in drug treatment.

  • ¶Median (IQR).

  • **No data available on CR attendance in 9 patients

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BP, blood pressure; EQ-VAS, EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IFG, impaired fasting glycaemia; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test.