Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

StudyYear of publicationParticipants, nMedian age% femaleReported medication categoriesMedian duration follow-up (years)Outcome measuresCovariates adjusted for
Rivaroxaban versus Warfarin in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET- AF)33201614 2647339.7Reference group: 0–4, 5–9, ≥10 medicines1.9All-cause mortality, stroke, non-CNS embolism, vascular death, MI, intracranial bleeding, major bleeding, non-major clinically relevant bleedingAge, sex, BMI, region, DM, previous stroke/TIA, vascular disease, CHF, hypertension, COPD, PAF, DBP, creatinine clearance (Cockcroft-Gault), heart rate, alcohol use and randomised treatment*
Apixaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE)32201618 2017035.3Reference group: 0–5, 6–8, ≥9 medicines1.8Stroke, systemic embolism, all-cause mortality, major bleeding, intracranial bleeding, GI bleeding, clinically relevant non-major bleedingAge, sex, country
Evaluation of Oral Anticoagulation with Vitamin K Antagnoists - the thrombEVAL Study Programme (thrombEVAL)37201911377436.8Reference group: 0–4, 5–8, ≥9 medicines2.3All-cause mortality, hospitalisation, stroke, TIA, major bleeding, clinically relevant non-major bleeding, intracranial bleedingAge, sex, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obesity, family history of MI, current smoking and Charlson Comorbidity Index
  • *Safety endpoints adjusted for age, sex, region, previous stroke/TIA, anaemia, previous GI bleed, COPD, DBP, creatinine clearance (Cockroft-Gault), platelets, albumin, previous aspirin, vitamin K antagonist, thienopyridine and randomised treatment.

  • BMI, body mass index; CHF, congestive heart failure; CNS, central nervous system; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; GI, gastrointestinal; MI, myocardial infarction; PAF, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.