Table 3B

Multivariate Cox regression analysis to assess the independent impact of PFO shunt flow direction on the risk of ischaemic stroke

CovariatesIschaemic stroke 214 (7.0%)
HR (95% CI)P value
Patent foramen ovale shunt direction
Right-to-left1.91 (1.16 to 3.16)0.01
Left-to-right0.58 (0.36 to 0.93)0.02
Bidirectional00.97
No PFO*––
CHA2DS2-VASc score1.31 (1.20 to 1.43)<0.001
Mean LAA emptying velocity -51.03 (0.99 to 1.07)0.08
LAA thrombus1.75 (1.09 to 3.19)0.03
  • * denotes reference category

  • CHA2DS2-VASc, congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischaemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65 to 74, female; LAA, left atrial appendage; PFO, patent foramen ovale.