Table 1

Baseline characteristics*

CharacteristicNo PFOPFOP value
n=2455 (80.0%)n=614 (20.0%)
Demographics
Age, years69.4±12.269.3±12.00.92
Age >75 years936 (38.1)219 (35.7)0.26
Sex (male)1655 (67.4)405 (66.0)0.49
Body mass index, kg/m230.7±6.831.3±6.90.09
History variables
Hypertension1682 (68.8)409 (66.6)0.30
Diabetes mellitus501 (20.5)126 (20.6)0.95
Prior myocardial infarction403 (16.6)94 (15.6)0.57
Prior CABG354 (14.5)81 (13.3)0.45
Stroke or TIA276 (11.2)74 (12.1)0.57
Congestive heart failure1041 (42.4)263 (42.8)0.85
Cardiomyopathy (tachycardia induced, ischaemic, dilated, infiltrative, restrictive, hypertrophic or idiopathic)584 (23.8)146 (23.8)0.99
Smoking (current or former)1169 (47.6)308 (50.2)0.26
Chronic lung disease334 (13.7)84 (13.8)0.94
Obstructive sleep apnoea420 (17.1)133 (21.7)0.01
CHA2DS2-VASc score3.2±1.63.2±1.60.60
Peripheral arterial disease273 (11.1)70 (11.4)0.84
Preprocedural haemodynamics
Heart rate92.9±22.892.6±22.00.81
Duration of AF episode
 <48 hour323 (15.4)63 (12.2)0.23
 >2 days to <7 days585 (27.9)155 (30.1)
 >7 days to <1 year1119 (53.41)267 (51.8)
 >1 year68 (3.25)30 (5.83)
Preprocedural medications
Beta blocker1511 (61.7)354 (58.1)0.11
Calcium channel blocker (non-dihydropyridine)846 (34.5)188 (30.8)0.08
Statin830 (33.8)190 (30.9)0.18
ACE-I or ARB1039 (42.3)255 (41.5)0.72
Antiplatelets1349 (55.0)337 (54.9)0.98
Warfarin or NOACs756 (30.8)202 (32.9)0.32
Antiarrhythmics768 (31.3)199 (32.4)0.59
Echocardiography
Patent foramen ovale shunt direction<0.001
 *No PFO
 Right-to-left148 (24.34)
 Left-to-right434 (71.38)
 Bidirectional26 (4.28)
Mean LAA emptying velocity36.1±20.438.3±21.10.04
Spontaneous echo contrast (LA or LAA)1082 (51.3)277 (54.4)0.21
Left atrial appendage thrombus34 (1.4)10 (1.6)0.65
Severe left atrial enlargement907 (37.0)210 (34.2)0.20
LV ejection fraction51.2±14.051.9±13.40.28
Mitral regurgitation (≥moderate)631 (25.7)164 (26.7)0.61
Discharge medications
Beta blocker1485 (60.8)349 (57.3)0.11
Calcium channel blocker (non-dihydropyridine)457 (18.8)122 (20.0)0.48
Statin903 (36.8)203 (33.1)0.08
ACE-I or ARB1200 (48.9)272 (44.3)0.04
Antiplatelets1286 (52.4)321 (52.3)0.96
Warfarin or NOACs2161 (88.0)552 (89.9)0.19
Antiarrhythmics829 (33.8)223 (36.3)0.24
Preprocedural INR1.9±0.91.9±0.80.39
INR at discharge1.9±0.82.0±0.80.72
  • * denotes reference category

  • ACE-I, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; AF, atrial fibrillation; ARB, angiotensin-receptor blocker; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CHA2DS2-VASc, congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 (doubled), diabetes mellitus, prior stroke or transient ischaemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65 to 74, female; INR, international normalised ratio; LA, left atrial; LAA, left atrial appendage; LV, left ventricular; NOACs, novel oral anticoagulants; PFO, patent foramen ovale; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.