Table 4

Cox proportional hazard model of cardiac events and all-cause mortality in HFpEF

HR95% CIP value
Cardiac event (252 events/1082 patients)
pEFRef
mrEF1.5931.119 to 2.2660.010
mrEF adjusted*1.1850.728 to 1.7320.543
rEF ‘worsened HFpEF’2.4391.842 to 3.230<0.001
rEF ‘worsened HFpEF’ adjusted*1.4241.020 to 1.8610.039
All-cause mortality (226 events/1082 patients)
pEFRef
mrEF0.9250.621 to 1.3770.699
rEF ‘worsened HFpEF’1.1340.819 to 1.5700.450
  • *Adjusted: adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, New York Heart Association class III or IV, presence of coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, chronic kidney disease, anaemia, hyperuricaemia, sleep-disordered breathing, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking, alcohol, usage of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors, mineral receptor antagonist, calcium channel blocker, beta blockers, diuretics, statin, digitalis, implantable cardiac defibrillator, B-type natriuretic peptide, tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient, right ventricular fractional area change, mitral regurgitation, left atrium volume and left ventricular ejection fraction at first assessment.

  • HFpEF, heart failure with preserved LVEF; mrEF, mid-range LVEF at second assessment; pEF, remained preserved LVEF at second assessment; rEF, reduced LVEF at second assessment.