Table 1

Clinical features of patients with HFpEF at first LVEF assessment, and changes in LVEF observed at second assessment (n=1082)

pEF (=758)mrEF (=138)rEF (=186)P value
Age (years)67.8±14.567.5±13.265.2±15.80.086
Male gender (n, %)404 (53.3)87 (63.0)123 (66.1)0.002
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.5±4.323.1±3.822.6±3.6*0.025
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)130.4±30.2135.2±30.8130.1±33.30.223
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)72.8±31.274.7±24.574.8±22.90.610
Heart rate (bpm)75.5±23.877.5±24.6**86.6±25.3**<0.001
NYHA functional class III/IV (n, %)26 (3.4)2 (1.4)7 (3.8)0.435
Comorbidity
Coronary artery disease (n, %)187 (24.7)44 (31.9)78 (41.9)<0.001
Atrial fibrillation (n, %)290 (38.3)64 (46.4)86 (46.2)0.048
Hypertension (n, %)521 (68.7)94 (68.1)140 (75.3)0.199
Diabetes (n, %)248 (32.7)51 (37.0)83 (44.8)0.009
Dyslipidaemia (n, %)524 (69.1)113 (81.9)134 (72.0)0.009
Chronic kidney disease (n, %)353 (46.6)80 (58.0)109 (58.6)0.002
Anaemia (n, %)381 (50.3)82 (59.4)120 (64.5)0.001
Hyperurecaemia (n, %)375 (49.5)92 (66.7)135 (72.6)<0.001
Sleep-disordered breathing (n, %)253 (33.4)62 (44.9)99 (53.2)<0.001
COPD (n, %)171 (22.6)35 (25.4)51 (27.4)0.337
Peripheral artery disease (n, %)67 (8.8)12 (8.7)25 (13.4)0.150
Smoking (n, %)385 (51.7)78 (58.2)95 (51.4)0.359
Alcohol (n, %)69 (9.3)16 (11.9)12 (6.5)0.240
Treatment
RAS inhibitor (n, %)484 (63.9)97 (70.3)146 (78.5)<0.001
Mineral receptor antagonist (n, %)215 (28.4)54 (39.1)101 (54.3)<0.001
Calcium channel blocker (n, %)322 (42.5)54 (39.1)73 (39.2)0.604
Beta blocker (n, %)440 (58.0)111 (80.4)155 (83.3)<0.001
Diuretic (n, %)415 (54.7)93 (67.4)147 (79.0)<0.001
Statin (n, %)295 (39.6)56 (41.8)75 (40.5)0.882
Digitalis (n, %)86 (11.5)11 (8.2)21 (11.4)0.523
Amiodarone (n, %)55 (7.3)14 (10.1)36 (19.4)<0.001
Antiplatelet agent (n, %)353 (46.6)83 (60.1)114 (61.3)<0.001
Anticoagulant (n, %)39 6 (52.2)95 (68.8)126 (67.7)<0.001
PCI (n, %)123 (16.2)40 (29.0)59 (31.7)<0.001
Catheter ablation (n, %)82 (10.8)10 (7.2)19 (10.2)0.445
ICD (n, %)91 (12.2)16 (11.9)26 (14.1)0.778
  • *P<0.05, **P<0.01 vs pEF, †p<0.05 and ††p<0.01 vs mrEF.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HFpEF, heart failure with preserved LVEF; ICD, implantable cardiac defibrillator; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; mrEF, mid-range LVEF at second assessment; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; pEF, remained preserved LVEF at second assessment; RAS, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system; rEF, reduced LVEF at second assessment.