Table 2

Cause-specific Cox model for pacemaker and death

VariableAdjusted HR for pacemaker (95% CI)Adjusted HR for death (95% CI)
Sex (male)1.19 (1.13 to 1.24)1.11 (1.09 to 1.13)
Interaction: heart failure and age (p<0.001)
 Age ≤60 years, no heart failureRefRef
 Age 61–70 years, no heart failure2.26 (2.03 to 2.51)2.49 (2.36 to 2.63)
 Age 71–80 years, no heart failure3.29 (2.98 to 3.64)5.06 (4.82 to 5.32)
 Age >80 years, no heart failure4.17 (3.77 to 4.61)11.69 (11.14 to 12.27)
 Age ≤60 years, if heart failure2.34 (1.92 to 2.85)2.44 (2.20 to 2.70)
 Age 61–70 years, if heart failure2.68 (2.29 to 3.13)4.71 (4.39 to 5.04)
 Age 71–80 years, if heart failure3.84 (3.39 to 4.35)8.31 (7.85 to 8.78)
 Age >80 years, if heart failure3.51 (3.10 to 3.97)16.59 (15.77 to 17.46)
Comorbidities
 Autoimmune disorder0.86 (0.69 to 1.08)1.35 (1.26 to 1.45)
 Chronic kidney disease1.01 (0.91 to 1.13)1.93 (1.87 to 2.00)
 Diabetes mellitus1.17 (1.09 to 1.25)1.25 (1.22 to 1.29)
 Ischaemic heart disease1.19 (1.13 to 1.26)1.05 (1.03 to 1.07)
 Hypertension1.31 (1.25 to 1.37)1.01 (0.99 to 1.02)
 Valvular AF1.39 (1.19 to 1.63)0.71 (0.65 to 0.78)
 Syncope1.92 (1.79 to 2.06)1.02 (0.98 to 1.05)
 Congenital heart disease2.42 (1.74 to 3.38)0.91 (0.72 to 1.16)
Procedures 
 CABG0.86 (0.73 to 1.01)0.60 (0.55 to 0.65)
 PCI1.09 (0.97 to 1.22)0.72 (0.68 to 0.76)
  • The HRs are estimated using 5 years of follow-up for the rate of pacemaker and all-cause mortality.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.