Table 4

Risk of bias assessment

Study IDSelectionComparabilityOutcomeNOS score
Watanabe et al16******6
Mangner et al17*****5
Landes et al18********8
  • Asterisks denote the quality of each domain (from lowest to highest) as follows: Good quality: 3 or 4 stars in selection domain AND 1 or 2 stars in comparability domain AND 2 or 3 stars in outcome/exposure domain; Fair quality: 2 stars in selection domain AND 1 or 2 stars in comparability domain AND 2 or 3 stars in outcome/exposure domain; Poor quality: 0 or 1 star in selection domain OR 0 stars in comparability domain OR 0 or 1 stars in outcome/exposure domain.

  • NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.