Table 1

Characteristics of the participants according to smoking status

Smoking status
NFCComparisons between groups†
n=2106n=750n=589P value*N versus FN versus CF versus C
Demographic and clinical parameters
 Age (years)50.1±3.650.9±3.549.6±3.7<0.001<0.0010.027<0.001
 Female57%60%51%0.007
 Black race46%36%62%<0.001
 Body mass index (kg/m2)30±730±729±70.0281.0000.0390.052
 Education (years)16 (14–18)15 (13–16)13 (12–15)<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)119±16118±15123±17<0.0010.838<0.001<0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)74±1174±1177±12<0.0011.000<0.001<0.001
 On antihypertensive medication (%)262732<0.001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)192±36193±37193±410.781
 HDL cholesterol (m/dL)58±1759±1856±200.0170.1940.2810.013
 On lipid-lowering medication (%)1517160.331
 Diabetes mellitus (%)1313170.098
 Alcohol consumption/day (mL)2 (0–12)5 (0–17)8 (0–27)<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
Echocardiography
 RVS' (cm/s)13.5±2.513.5±2.613.2±2.50.0380.7680.0310.112
 TAPSE (mm)2.56±0.502.57±0.532.45±0.50<0.0011.000<0.001<0.001
 RVe' (cm/s)12.7±3.312.3±3.011.8±3.0<0.0010.024<0.0010.027
 LV end-diastolic volume (mL)112±31110±31113±300.192
 LV end-systolic volume (mL)44±1843±2045±180.169
 LV ejection fraction (%)61±762±761±70.092
 LV mass index (g/m2)82±2184±2189±22<0.0010.021<0.001<0.001
 LV longitudinal strain (%)−15.1±2.4−15.3±2.4−14.7±2.3<0.0010.4890.001<0.001
 E wave (cm/s)79±1678±1779±170.465
 LV lateral wall e' (cm/s)11.9±2.911.7±2.811.2–2.8<0.0010.656<0.0010.004
 LV E/e'7.0±2.37.0±2.37.6±2.9<0.0011.000<0.001<0.001
 LA volume index (mL/m2)24.5±6.924.5±7.025.0±7.20.343
 PASP (mm Hg)31.1±5.730.8±5.632.1±7.70.794
 TAPSE/PASP (mm/mm Hg)0.84 (0.71–0.98)0.84 (0.68–1.00)0.76 (0.64–0.94)0.0030.985<0.0010.005
Pulmonary function
 FEV1 (L)3.1±0.83.1±0.82.9±0.8<0.0011.000<0.0010.001
 FVC (L)3.9±1.04.0±1.03.8±1.00.0061.0000.0190.007
 FEV1/FVC0.80 (0.76–0.84)0.78 (0.75–0.82)0.78 (0.73–0.82)<0.001<0.001<0.0010.255
CAC score (>0 AU)24%30%41%<0.001
  • Continuous variables are expressed as mean±SD if normally distributed and as median (IQR) if non-normally distributed; categorical variables are reported as counts (%).

  • *Test for trend for continuous variables, and χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • †Student t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

  • AU, Agatston unit; C, current; CAC, coronary artery calcium; E/e', Ratio of pulsed-Doppler derived E-wave from mitral inflow to tissue-Doppler derived left ventricular lateral e'; F, former; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC, forced vital capacity; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LA, left atrial; LV, left ventricular; N, never; PASP, pulmonary artery systolic pressure; RVe', right ventricular early diastolic velocity; RVS', right ventricular peak systolic velocity; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.