Table 2

Hyperlipidaemia-related clinical trials

YearAuthorParticipantsSpirulinaBlood lipidsBGBPOther effects
1988Nakaya et al30304.2 g per day×8 weeks in group1; 4.2 g per day spirulina×4 weeks in group 2Significant reduction in TC; predominately higher among those with higher serum TC and those with higher dietary content of TC.No change in BW
1996Ramamoorthy et al3130 patients with hypercholesterolaemia (TC>250 mg/dL) with ischaemic heart disease2g×3 months in group1; 4g×3 months in group 2 and group three being controlSignificant lowering in TC, LDL, VLDL, TG and increase in HDL as compared with the control group.Significant reduction in BW as compared with control group.
2000Mani et al3415 T2DM2 g spirulina×2 monthsSignificant lowering in TC, LDL, VLDL, TG and HDL-C: LDL-C ratio.Significant reduction in BG.
2001Parikh et al3525 T2DM2 g per day×2 monthsSignificant reduction in TG by 6.4 mg, LDL-C by 7.1 mg, TC by 21.3 mg (p<0.05) and atherogenic indices of TC:HDL-C from 5.4±1.0 to 5.0±1.0 (p<0.05) and LDL-C: HDL-C from 3.5±0.8 to 2.9±0.5 (p<0.05). Apolipoprotein B lowered by 16.1 mg (p<0.05); apolipoprotein A1 levels increased by 11.4 mg (p<0.05).Reduced fasting blood glucose by 19.3 mg (p<0.05), postprandial blood glucose by 16.1 mg (p<0.05), HbA1c by 1.0% (p<0.05)
2008Lee et al3637 T2DM8 g×12 weeksSignificant reduction in TGs (125.8– 98.5 mg/dL, p<0.05.Reduced BPAntioxidant effects by lowering plasma malondialdehyde levels (p<0.05) and increasing plasma adiponectin levels (p<0.1)
2002Samuels et al3723 paediatric Indian patients with nephrotic syndromeSteroid medications alone or with 1 g/day×2 monthsTC decreased significantly by 116.33 mg/dL vs 69.87 mg/dL in control); LDL by 94.14 mg/dL vs 61 mg/dL in controls and triglycerides by 67.72 mg/dL vs 22.6 mg/dL in controls. LDL-C:HDL-C ratio decreased by 1.66 vs 1.13 (p<0.05) and TC:HDL-C decreased by 1.96 vs 1.19.
2003Kim et al3912 elderly patients aged 60–75 years7.5 g/day for 24 weeksSignificant reductions in TG, TC and LDL fraction.No anthropometric changes
2005 Kim et al4051 elderly females with hypercholesterolaemia (TC >200 mg/dL) aged 60 years and above7.5 g/day for 8 weeksSignificant reduction in TC, LDL-C, oxidised LDL and apolipoprotein B.
2008Park et al4278 individuals aged 60–87 year8 g/day spirulina vs placebo for 16 weeksSignificant reduction in plasma TC and LDL noted.
IL-2 increased and IL-6 reduced.
2014Mazokopakis et al32Cretan Greek newly diagnosed with dyslipidaemia1 g per day for 3 monthsSignificant reduction in TGs by 16.3% (p<0.0001), LDL-C by 10.1% (p<0.0001), TC by 8.9% (p<0.0001), non-HDL-C by 10.8% (p<0.0001) and TC/HDL ratio by 11.5% (p=0.0006). HDL-C increased by 3.5%.HellenicSCORE revealing a reduction in risk from 15.4% to 1.9%.
  • BG, blood glucose; BP, blood pressure; BW, body weight; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol; IL, interleukin; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; VLDL, very low density lipoprotein.