Table 2

Baseline characteristics, in-hospital treatment and outcome for the matched cohort

Early IABP versus controlEarly Impella CP versus control
Early IABPControlP valueEarly ImpellaCPControlP value
Number of patients40404040
Age (years), mean (SD)68.8 (11.1)69.1 (9.9)0.9064.5 (10.1)65.9 (13.3)0.60
Male sex, n (%)33 (82.5)28 (70.0)0.1934 (85.5)29 (72.5)0.17
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD)25.5 (3.7)26.6 (4.0)0.2827.324.90.01
IHD, n (%)11 (27.5)8 (20.5)0.4714 (36.8)17 (43.6)0.55
Previous MI, n (%)3 (7.5)4 (10.3)0.718 (21.1)8 (20.0)0.91
Hypertension, n (%)25 (64.1)15 (39.5)0.0322 (59.5)23 (59.0)0.97
Dyslipidaemia, n (%)11 (28.2)9 (23.7)0.6515 (40.5)16 (41.0)0.97
PAD, n (%)1 (2.5)2 (5.1)0.612 (5.4)6 (15.8)0.26
DM, n (%)9 (22.5)6 (15.4)0.427 (18.9)4 (10.5)0.35
Previous stroke, n (%)4 (10.3)2 (5.1)0.681 (2.7)1 (2.6)1.00
COPD, n (%)1 (2.6)3 (7.7)0.620 (0.0)2 (5.3)0.49
Cardiac arrest, n (%)9 (22.5)10 (25.0)0.7916 (40.0)15 (37.5)0.82
 Time to ROSC (min), median (Q1, Q3)25 (18, 25)27 (17, 33)0.7123 (15, 75)27.5 (15, 70)0.61
STEMI, n (%)36 (90.0)38 (95.0)0.4027 (67.5)24 (60.0)0.49
Patient delay (min), median (Q1, Q3)75 (20, 256)108 (24, 205)0.9134 (2, 229)46 (14, 219)0.46
System delay (min), median (Q1, Q3)149 (115, 194)164 (120, 245)0.41140 (105, 175)142 (100, 250)0.75
Haemodynamics at the time of shock
 Shock before PCI procedure, n (%)25 (62.5)34 (85.0)0.0222 (55.0)34 (85.0)0.003
 Vasoactive drugs, n (%)27 (67.5)27 (67.5)1.0022 (55.0)18 (45.0)0.50
 MAP (mm Hg), mean (SD)61 (11)64 (9)0.2057 (16)56 (21)0.85
 Heart rate (beats/min), mean (SD)94 (24)86 (22)0.1595 (32)77 (33)0.02
 LVEF (%), median (Q1, Q3)27.5 (20, 40)30 (22.5, 37.5)0.7615 (10, 25)15 (10, 25)0.77
 Lactate (mmol/L), median (Q1, Q3)3.5 (1.8, 5.7)3.2 (2.0, 5.9)0.928.5 (4.5, 11.7)8.3 (3.7, 13.4)0.72
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2), mean (SD)62 (24)60 (21)0.6763 (21)60 (19)0.61
In-hospital management and outcome
 30-day mortality, n (%)11 (27.5)15 (37.5)0.3216 (40.0)31 (77.5)<0.001
 Cause of in-hospital death, n (%)
 Cardiac8 (20.0)7 (17.5)0.787 (17.5)18 (45.0)0.008
 Multiorgan failure1 (2.5)3 (7.5)1.006 (15.0)5 (12.5)1.00
 Anoxic brain injury1 (2.5)2 (5.0)1.002 (5.0)3 (7.5)1.00
 Other, n (%)1 (2.5)2 (5.0)1.001 (2.5)2 (5.0)1.00
 Mechanical ventilation, n (%)24 (60.0)27 (67.5)0.4936 (90.0)35 (87.5)1.00
 Vasoactive drug use overall, n (%)36 (90.0)40 (100)0.1239 (97.5)39 (97.5)1.00
 Escalating MCS, n (%)2 (5.0)19 (47.5)<0.0015 (12.5)12 (30.0)0.10
 Use of VA-ECMO0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1.004 (10.0)7 (17.5)0.35
 Renal replacement therapy for AKI8 (20.5)8 (21.0)0.9519 (48.7)11 (28.2)0.10
 Limb ischaemia1 (2.6)1 (2.5)1.004 (10.0)3 (7.5)1.00
  • AKI, acute kidney injury; BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MAP, mean arterial pressure; MCS, mechanical circulatory support; MI, myocardial infarction; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; ROSC, return of spontaneous circulation; STEMI, ST elevation myocardial infarction; VA-ECMO, venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.