Table 2

Comparison of mean daily PA in patients with versus without HF with cumulative adjustments for covariates

ModelHF mean PA (CI)No HF mean PA (CI)P value of HF status
Self-reported (in METs)
 Baseline (age and sex, HF)26.5 (24.7 to 28.4)34.7 (34.5 to 34.9)<0.001
 Baseline+ethnicity26.6 (24.7 to 28.4)34.7 (34.5 to 34.9)<0.001
 Baseline+BMI28.2 (26.4 to 30.1)34.7 (34.5 to 34.9)<0.001
 Baseline+alcohol status26.5 (24.6 to 28.3)34.7 (34.5 to 34.9)<0.001
 Baseline+smoking status26.4 (24.5 to 28.2)34.7 (34.5 to 34.9)<0.001
 Baseline+Townsend26.1 (24.3 to 28.0)34.7 (34.5 to 34.9)<0.001
 Baseline+all of the above27.7 (25.8 to 30.0)34.7 (34.4 to 35.0)<0.001
Accelerometer-derived (in milligravity)
 Baseline (age and sex, HF)23.7 (23.1 to 24.4)28.1 (28.0 to 28.1)<0.001
 Baseline+ethnicity23.7 (23.1 to 24.4)28.1 (28.0 to 28.2)<0.001
 Baseline+BMI24.7 (24.0 to 25.3)28.1 (28.0 to 28.2)<0.001
 Baseline+alcohol status23.7 (23.1 to 24.4)28.1 (28.0 to 28.1)<0.001
 Baseline +smoking status23.7 (23.1 to 24.4)28.1 (28.0 to 28.2)<0.001
 Baseline+Townsend23.8 (23.1 to 24.4)28.1 (28.0 to 28.2)<0.001
 Baseline+all of the above24.7 (24.1 to 25.4)28.1 (27.9 to 28.2)<0.001
  • P values are reported for HF status adjusted for the listed covariates.

  • BMI, Body Mass Index; HF, heart failure; MET, metabolic equivalent of task; PA, physical activity.