Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to treatment groups

All(n=400)Dead before
discharge (n=31)
LTOAC (n=274)No LTOAC (n=95)
Age, mean (SD), years78.7 (11.0)83.8 (7.2)78.1 (11.4)78.7 (10.6)
Men193 (48.3)12 (38.7)122 (44.5)59 (62.1)
Medical history
 Hypertension317 (79.3)20 (64.5)216 (78.8)81 (85.3)
 Diabetes87 (21.8)11 (35.5)49 (17.9)27 (28.4)
 Dyslipidaemia168 (42.0)10 (32.3)119 (43.4)39 (41.1)
 Former smokers116 (30.1)5 (17.2)83 (31.4)28 (30.4)
 Current smokers32 (8.3)1 (3.4)22 (8.3)9 (9.8)
 Regular alcohol consumption42 (10.6)1 (3.7)29 (10.6)12 (12.6)
 Cerebrovascular disease89 (22.3)5 (16.1)62 (22.7)22 (23.2)
 Coronary artery disease68 (17.0)5 (16.1)42 (15.4)21 (22.1)
 Peripheral artery disease30 (7.5)0 (0)20 (7.3)10 (10.5)
 Congestive heart failure53 (13.3)4 (12.9)32 (11.7)17 (17.9)
 Significant valvular disease or prosthetic heart valves38 (9.5)2 (6.5)31 (11.4)5 (5.3)
Type of stroke
 TIA35 (8.8)0 (0)28 (10.2)7 (7.4)
 Ischaemic stroke335 (83.8)26 (83.9)240 (87.6)69 (72.6)
 Intracerebral haemorrhage27 (6.8)5 (16.1)5 (1.8)17 (17.9)
 Subdural haematoma2 (0.5)0 (0)1 (0.4)1 (1.1)
 Subarachnoid haemorrhage1 (0.3)0 (0)0 (0)1 (1.1)
Baseline NIHSS
 065 (16.4)0 (0)50 (18.5)15 (15.8)
 1–4111 (28.0)2 (6.7)83 (30.6)26 (27.4)
 5–976 (19.2)3 (10.0)60 (22.1)13 (13.7)
 10–20102 (25.8)16 (53.3)56 (20.7)30 (31.6)
 ≥2142 (10.6)9 (30.0)22 (8.1)11 (11.6)
Examinations
 BMI, mean (SD), kg/m²25.6 (5.0)24.9 (4.3)25.5 (5.0)26.1 (5.3)
 Systolic BP, mean (SD), mm Hg148.7 (26.0)145.3 (27.4)146.0 (23.6)157.8 (30.3)
 Diastolic BP, mean (SD), mm Hg78.4 (15.6)76.5 (17.5)77.6 (14.5)81.4 (17.7)
 Glucose, median (IQR), mg/dL106.0 (93.0–133.0)118.0 (107.0–142.0)104.0 (93.0–129.0)113.0 (96.0–142.0)
 Haemoglobin A1C, median (IQR),%5.9 (5.6–6.5)6.1 (5.7–6.9)5.9 (5.6–6.4)6.0 (5.6–7.0)
 Creatinine, median (IQR) umol/L86.5 (71.0–110.5)93.0 (70.0–118.0)82.0 (70.0–102.0)92.0 (74.0–119.0)
 INR, mean (SD) (patients on VKA only) before baseline2.3 (0.6)2.3 (1.0)2.3 (0.6)2.3 (0.5)
 <220 (34.5)1 (33.3)13 (36.1)6 (31.6)
 ≥2 and ≤338 (65.5)2 (66.7)23 (63.9)13 (68.4)
 Time-in-therapeutic range (pts on VKA), median % (IQR) before baseline62.5 (50.0–85.7)53.6 (50.0–61.9)62.5 (50.0–100.0)66.7 (33.3–85.7)
 <50%15 (24.6)0 (0)9 (23.7)6 (31.6)
 50%–59%13 (21.3)3 (75.0)8 (21.1)2 (10.5)
 60%–69%7 (11.5)1 (25.0)4 (10.5)2 (10.5)
 ≥70%26 (42.6)0 (0)17 (44.7)9 (47.4)
 Glomerular filtration rate, median (IQR), mL/min/1.73²65.1 (49.3–81.0)52.4 (37.0–75.4)67.0 (52.6–83.5)60.0 (43.4–76.8)
 <3026 (6.5)4 (12.9)14 (5.1)8 (8.4)
 30–59143 (35.8)13 (41.9)91 (33.2)39 (41.1)
 ≥60231 (57.8)14 (45.2)169 (61.7)48 (50.5)
 NT-BPN, median (IQR), g/L1512.0 (560.0–3644.0)4152.0 (2225.5–7564.0)1499.0 (520.0–3270.0)1499.5 (497.5–3487.5)
 Haemoglobin, mean (SD), g/L13.4 (1.8)13.1 (2.0)13.5 (1.7)13.3 (2.0)
Medication at discharge
 Antiplatelet72 (18.1)37 (13.6)28 (29.5)
 Anticoagulant (both long term and very short term)294 (73.7)244 (89.4)45 (47.4)*
  AVK44 (15.0)35 (14.3)8 (17.8)*
  NOAC220 (74.8)186 (76.2)31 (68.9)*
  Anticoagulant+antiplatelet24 (6.0)19 (7.8)4 (8.9)*
 BP lowering therapy368 (92.0)255 (93.1)93 (97.9)
 Lipid-lowering therapy284 (71.0)212 (77.4)62 (65.3)
 Glycaemia lowering therapy87 (21.8)52 (19.0)26 (27.4)
  • * Short-term anticoagulant.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; INR, international normalised ratio; LTOAC, long-term oral anticoagulant; NOAC, new oral anticoagulant; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; VKA, vitamin K antagonist.