Table 1

Characteristics of the study using text message intervention for CVD prevention

Sample size
Age (years)*
Male (%)
Intervention versus controlParticipant characteristicsSetting,
Primary outcomeSecondary outcome
Arora et al,
2014 (TExT-MED)27
6 months
Text messages versus no text messagePatients with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c>8%)Emergency department,
LA County
Hospital, University of Southern California, USA
Change in HbA1cMedication adherence, self-efficacy, performance of self-care tasks, QoL, diabetes-specific knowledge, ED use and patient satisfaction.
Bobrow et al,
2016 (StAR)†15 42
12 months
Usual care versus informational SMS versus interactive SMSPatients treated for high BPSingle primary care centre in Cape Town, South AfricaChange in mean SBP from baseline to 12 monthsProportion of BP<140/90, medication adherence by PDC and self-report, QoL (EQ5D), clinic attendance and retention, satisfaction with clinic services and care, hospital admissions and basic hypertension knowledge
Chow et al,
2015 (TEXT ME)†24 41
6 months
Usual care versus text messaging+usual carePatients with documented CHDA large metropolitan tertiary referral public hospital in Sydney, AustraliaChange in plasma
LDL cholesterol at 6 months
Change in SBP, BMI, WC, total cholesterol, HR, smoking status, QoL (SF-12), medication adherence, physical activity, proportion achieving modifiable risk factors, PHQ-9 and nutritional status
Islam et al,
2015 (MPID)†28 43
6 months
Routine care versus SMS+routine carePatients with type 2 diabetes on oral therapyTertiary hospital outpatient department, Dhaka, BangladeshMean changes in HbA1c at 6 monthsMedication adherence, QoL (EQ5D), physical activity, PHQ-9, BP, WC, BMI and diet
Kiselev et al, 201216199
12 months
Active ambulatory care management supported by SMS versus traditional ambulatory care managementPatients with arterial hypertensionAmbulatory department of the Saratov Research Institute of Cardiology,
Saratov, Russia.
BP levelsBMI and smoking rates
Maddison et al,
2015 (HEART)†26 31
6 months
Mobile phone text messages and internet intervention plus usual care, or usual care aloneAdults with a diagnosis of IHD, able to perform exercise and who had access to the internet.Two metropolitan hospitals in Auckland, New ZealandChange in maximal oxygen uptake at 6 monthsPhysical activity (IPAQ), SBP, weight, waist:hip ratio, self-efficacy, QoL (SF-36 and EQ5D) and cost-effectiveness
Pfaeffli Dale et al, 2015 (Text4Heart)†25 44123
6 months
Centre-based CR (usual care) versus text messages and a supporting website+usual careAdults diagnosed with CHDTwo large metropolitan hospitals in Auckland, NZProportion of participants adhering to healthy behaviours at 6 monthsBP, lipid profile, weight, BMI, waist:hip ratio, self-efficacy, depression and medication adherence
Ramachandran et al,
24 months
Mobile phone messaging intervention or standard careWorking Indian men aged 35–55 years with BMI of ≥23 kg/m2 with no diabetes or major illnessPublic and private-sector industrial units in southeast IndiaIncidence of type 2 diabetesBMI, WC, SBP, DBP, lipid profile, total dietary energy intake and physical activity score
Wald et al,
6 months
60 (54–68)
Text group versus no text groupPatients taking BP and/or lipid-lowering medications7 Primary care practices in London, UKMedication use at 6 months, exceeding 80% of the prescribed regimenProportion of patients continuing their medications, taking >80% of their prescribed regimen, BP, total cholesterol and LDL
  • *Age in years (mean±SD/median (IQR)).

  • †Studies included in the individual patient data meta-analysis.

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CHD, coronary heart disease; CR, cardiac rehabilitation; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; ED, emergency department; EQ5D, EuroQol Group 5-Dimension Self-report Questionnaire; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PDC, proportion of days of medication covered; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire 9; QoL, quality of life; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SF-12, short form 12; SF-36, short form 36; SMS, short message service; StAR, SMS Text-message adherence suppoRt tria; TEXT ME, Effect of Lifestyle-Focused text messaging on risk factor modification in patients with coronary heart disease: a randomized clinical trial; TExT-MED, Trial to examine text message-based mHealth in emergency department patients with diabetes; WC, waist circumference.