Table 2

Trials included in the individual patient data meta-analysis with outcomes by trial at the end of follow-up*

TrialLocationParticipantsOutcomenInterventionControlMean difference (95% CI)P value for the difference
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) at end of follow-up
 HEART31New ZealandIHDNumber of observations1527478
Analysis of covariance135.7 (132.7 to 138.6)131.1 (128.3 to 134.0)4.6 (0.5 to 8.7)0.0289
 MPID28BangladeshDiabetesNumber of observations236118118
Analysis of covariance127.1 (124.8 to 129.4)126.7 (124.4 to 129.0)0.4 (−2.8 to 3.7)0.7968
 StAR15South AfricaHypertensionNumber of observations802406396
Analysis of covariance133.2 (131.7 to 134.8)135.4 (133.8 to 136.9)−2.1 (−4.3 to 0.1)0.0599
 Text4Heart25New ZealandCHDNumber of observations1145658
Analysis of covariance135.5 (130.9 to 140.1)135.4 (130.8 to 139.9)0.1 (−6.4 to 6.6)0.9800
 TEXT ME24AustraliaCHDNumber of observations672329343
Analysis of covariance128.2 (126.7 to 129.8)135.8 (134.3 to 137.3)−7.6 (−9.8 to −5.4)<0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) at the end of follow-up
 HEART31New ZealandIHDNumber of observations1527478
Analysis of covariance79.3 (77.4 to 81.3)77.7 (75.8 to 79.6)1.6 (−1.1 to 4.4)0.2483
 MPID28BangladeshDiabetesNumber of observations236118118
Analysis of covariance79.1 (77.9 to 80.4)78.2 (76.9 to 79.4)1.0 (−0.8 to 2.8)0.2844
 StAR15South AfricaHypertensionNumber of observations802406396
Analysis of covariance82.9 (81.9 to 84.0)84.0 (83.0 to 85.1)−1.1 (−2.6 to 0.4)0.1497
 Text4Heart25New ZealandCHDNumber of observations1145658
Analysis of covariance79.4 (76.8 to 82.0)79.6 (77.1 to 82.1)−0.2 (−3.8 to 3.4)0.9019
 TEXT ME24AustraliaCHDNumber of observations673329344
Analysis of covariance80.5 (79.6 to 81.5)83.6 (82.7 to 84.5)−3.1 (−4.4 to −1.7)<0.0001
BMI (kg/m2) at the end of follow-up
 HEART31New ZealandIHDNumber of observations1527478
Analysis of covariance28.7 (28.4 to 28.9)28.5 (28.2 to 28.7)0.2 (−0.1 to 0.5)0.2569
 MPID28BangladeshDiabetesNumber of observations1639073
Analysis of covariance26.5 (25.9 to 27.1)26.0 (25.4 to 26.7)0.4 (−0.5 to 1.3)0.3425
 StAR15South AfricaHypertensionNumber of observations795401394
Analysis of covariance33.5 (33.3 to 33.7)33.7 (33.5 to 33.9)−0.1 (−0.4 to 0.2)0.3732
 Text4Heart25New ZealandCHDNumber of observations1135558
Analysis of covariance29.1 (28.8 to 29.4)29.2 (28.9 to 29.5)−0.1 (−0.6 to 0.3)0.6015
 TEXT ME24AustraliaCHDNumber of observations684335349
Analysis of covariance29.0 (28.8 to 29.3)30.3 (30.1 to 30.5)−1.3 (−1.6 to −0.9)<0.0001
  • Note: All randomised patients with both visits assessed at baseline and at the end of follow-up have been included in this analysis.

  • End of follow-up corresponds to month 12 for StAR study and month 6 for other studies.

  • Primary analysis—non-adjusted model: analysis of covariance including randomised treatment and baseline value.

  • n is the total number of observations used (available) for the analysis at month 6 using baseline value as covariate.

  • CHD, coronary heart disease; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; MPID, mobile phone intervention for diabetes; StAR, Mobile Phone Text Messages to Support Treatment Adherence in Adults With High Blood Pressure (SMS-Text Adherence Support); TEXT ME, Effect of Lifestyle-Focused text messaging on risk factor modification in patients with coronary heart disease; TExT-MED, Trial to examine text message-based mHealth in emergency department patients with diabetes.