Table 3

Adjusted HRs for AMI or CHD death and 95% CIs for time-updated mean HbA1c, albuminuria and eGFR categories versus the reference group examined by Cox regression

AMI or CHD deathHR (95% CI) P value
Model 3
All patients and controls
Model 3a
Male patients and controls
Model 3b
Female patients and controls
Type 2 diabetes versus controls
Time-updated DD=1 year (10th percentile)
1.24 (1.22 to 1.26)1.21 (1.18 to 1.24)1.30 (1.26 to 1.33)
Type 2 diabetes versus controls
Time-updated DD=4 years (25th percentile)
1.32 (1.30 to 1.34)1.27 (1.25 to 1.30)1.39 (1.35 to 1.43)
Type 2 diabetes versus controls
Time-updated DD=8 years (50th percentile): main results
1.42 (1.41to 1.44)1.37 (1.34to 1.39)1.53 (1.49to 1.56)
Type 2 diabetes versus controls
Time-updated DD=13 years (75th percentile)
1.58 (1.56 to 1.60)1.49 (1.47 to 1.52)1.72 (1.68 to 1.75)
Type 2 diabetes versus controls
Time-updated DD=19 years (90th percentile)
1.78 (1.75 to 1.80)1.66 (1.62 to 1.69)1.98 (1.94 to 2.02)
For a patient with type 2 diabetes with median diabetes duration (8 years)
 Type 2 diabetes versus controls ≤20051.57 (1.52 to 1.62)1.52 (1.46 to 1.58)1.66 (1.58 to 1.74)
 Type 2 diabetes versus controls
>2005
1.39 (1.37 to 1.41)1.34 (1.31 to 1.36)1.49 (1.45 to 1.53)
Time-updated mean HbA1c categoriesEvents (n)=142 689
Subjects (n)=2 502 026
Data used=96.0%
Events (n)=88 143
Subjects (n)=1 354 248
Data used=96.4%
Events (n)=54 546
Subjects (n)=1 147 778
Data used=95.6%
 Controls (reference)1.001.001.00
 ≤6.9% (≤52 mmol/mol)1.19 (1.17 to 1.21)1.15 (1.13 to 1.18)1.26 (1.22 to 1.30)
 7.0%–7.8% (53–62 mmol/mol)1.51 (1.48 to 1.55)1.44 (1.40 to 1.48)1.65 (1.59 to 1.71)
 7.9%–8.7% (63–72 mmol/mol)1.91 (1.85 to 1.96)1.79 (1.72 to 1.85)2.10 (2.01 to 2.20)
 8.8%–9.6% (73–82 mmol/mol)2.23 (2.14 to 2.33)2.09 (1.97 to 2.21)2.46 (2.30 to 2.64)
 ≥9.7% (≥83 mmol/mol)2.77 (2.62 to 2.93)2.54 (2.36 to 2.74)3.10 (2.84 to 3.38)
Time-updated albuminuria categoriesEvents (n)=137 903
Subjects (n)=2 447 451
Data used=93.9%
Events (n)=85 501
Subjects (n)=1 325 008
Data used=94.3%
Events (n)=52 402
Subjects (n)=1 122 443
Data used=93.5%
 Controls (reference)1.001.001.00
 Normoalbuminuria1.29 (1.27 to 1.31)1.23 (1.20 to 1.26)1.38 (1.34 to 1.42)
 Microalbuminuria1.63 (1.58 to 1.68)1.55 (1.50 to 1.60)1.84 (1.75 to 1.93)
 Macroalbuminuria2.08 (2.01 to 2.15)2.00 (1.92 to 2.08)2.40 (2.27 to 2.54)
 CKD stage 54.20 (3.74 to 4.72)3.96 (3.42 to 4.58)4.74 (3.93 to 5.72)
Time-updated eGFR categoriesEvents (n)=137 434
Subjects (n)=2 477 771
Data used=95.1%
Events (n)=85 066
Subjects (n)=1 341 052
Data used=95.4%
Events (n)=52 368
Subjects (n)=1 136 719
Data used=94.7%
 Controls (reference)1.001.001.00
 CKD stage 1 (eGFR ≥90)1.55 (1.51 to 1.61)1.44 (1.38 to 1.49)1.89 (1.77 to 2.01)
 CKD stage 2 (eGFR 60–89)1.17 (1.15 to 1.19)1.13 (1.10 to 1.16)1.28 (1.24 to 1.32)
 CKD stage 3 (eGFR 30–59)1.46 (1.43 to 1.50)1.45 (1.40 to 1.50)1.47 (1.42 to 1.52)
 CKD stage 4 (eGFR 15–29)2.37 (2.24 to 2.51)2.26 (2.08 to 2.45)2.37 (2.19 to 2.57)
 CKD stage 5 (eGFR <15 or dialysis)4.25 (3.79 to 4.78)3.97 (3.43 to 4.60)4.91 (4.07 to 5.93)
  • Adjusted for time-updated age and sex (for all patient models), time-updated diabetes duration (centred at median 8 years), born in Sweden, maximum education level and baseline comorbidities (AF, CHD, HF, VD, stroke, cancer).

  • All comparisons have p<0.0001.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; AMI, acute myocardial infarction; CHD, coronary heart disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; DD, diabetes duration; HF, heart failure; VD, valve disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.