Table 2

Echocardiography data

All patients
(N=418)
Classical LF-LG
(n=118, 28.2%)
Paradoxical LF-LG
(n=80, 19.1%)
NF-LG
(n=220, 52.6%)
P value
TTE (pre-TAVI)
AVA, cm20.71±0.150.67±0.15*0.63±0.14*0.76±0.13<0.001
MG, mm Hg32.4 (28.0–36.0)31.6 (25.8–35.9)*30.5 (25.1–34.0)*33.8 (29.9–37.0)<0.001
Vmax, m/s3.80 (3.50–4.02)3.68 (3.30–4.00)*3.70 (3.40–3.99)*3.88 (3.60–4.08)<0.001
LVEF, %60.7 (47.0–67.0)39.0 (33.2–45.0)*†64.7 (60.3–68.0)64.5 (58.8–70.7)<0.001
SVi, mL/m239.7 (32.1–49.0)36.4 (28.6–44.9)*†27.7 (24.8–31.7)*45.1 (39.7–53.4)<0.001
LAD, mm42.0±7.343.3±7.741.2±7.041.6±7.10.071
E/e′19.4 (14.6–24.3)21.0 (15.5–28.0)*17.8 (13.9–25.5)18.3 (14.3–23.0)0.035
Moderate-severe AR36 (8.6)20 (16.9)4 (5.0)12 (5.5)0.001
Moderate-severe MR42 (10.0)27 (22.9)6 (7.5)9 (4.1)<0.001
Mean BP, mm Hg106.3 (97.5–114.3)101.7 (90.5–108.0)*†107.2 (100.3–115.4)108.7 (98.5–117.7)<0.001
LVEDV, mL80.9 (62.3–107.5)113.0 (91.3–142.0)*†59.0 (49.1–72.4)*74.6 (60.6–99.0)<0.001
LVESV, mL32.9 (20.1–53.9)68.0 (51.0–88.9)*†21.0 (16.5–25.5)*26.0 (18.9–37.3)<0.001
TTE (post-TAVI)
EOA, cm21.60 (1.35–1.90)1.69 (1.40–1.98)*1.50 (1.25–1.70)†*1.63 (1.37–1.94)0.001
THV MG, mm Hg8.5 (7.0–11.0)8.00 (6.00–10.00)†8.2 (6.3–11.0)9.0 (7.0–11.9)0.004
LVEF, %61.4 (51.4–67.5)45.3 (38.2–53.0)*†63.9 (57.1–68.0)65.1 (59.0–69.6)<0.001
SVi, mL/m242.9 (34.6–53.0)41.9 (33.4–52.0)*†34.3 (25.2–40.0)†46.3 (38.6–55.7)<0.001
E/e′19.1 (15.0–25.3)19.5 (16.4–27.7)17.8 (13.9–25.4)19.4 (14.8–24.5)0.264
Moderate-severe PVL6 (1.4)3 (2.5)1 (1.3)2 (0.9)0.479
Moderate-severe MR33 (7.9)16 (13.7)5 (6.3)12 (5.5)0.024
  • Values are expressed as n (%), median (IQR) and mean±SD.

  • *P<0.05 versus NF-LG severe AS.

  • †P<0.05 versus paradoxical LF-LG severe AS

  • AR, aortic regurgitation;AS, aortic stenosis;AVA, aortic valve area;BP, blood pressure; EOA, effective orifice area;E/e', transmitral early peak velocity to early diastolic mitral annular tissue velocity; LAD, left atrial diameter;LF, low-flow;LG, low-gradient;LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume;LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction;LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume;MG, mean pressure gradient;MR, mitral regurgitation;NF, normal-flow;PVL, paravalvular leakage;SVi, stroke volume index; TAVI, transcatheter aortic valve implantation;THV, transcatheter heart valve;TTE, transthoracic echocardiography; Vmax, max velocity.