Table 1

Patient characteristics and procedure data

All patients
(N=418)
Classical LF-LG
(n=118, 28.2%)
Paradoxical LF-LG
(n=80, 19.1%)
NF-LG
(n=220, 52.6%)
P value
Age, years84.0 (81.0–87.0)84.0 (80.0–87.0)85.0 (82.0–88.0)84.0 (81.0–87.0)0.080
Male136 (32.5)48 (40.7)21 (26.3)67 (30.5)0.066
BSA, m²1.42 (1.32–1.53)1.43 (1.34–1.51)1.41 (1.29–1.51)1.43 (1.32–1.56)0.600
STS score, %7.1 (4.9–10.0)8.6 (5.4–13.5)†7.4 (5.3–11.3)†6.5 (4.8–9.1)0.001
Clinical frailty score4.0 (3.0–5.0)4.0 (3.0–5.0)4.0 (3.0–4.0)4.0 (3.0–5.0)0.281
NYHA 3 or 4219 (52.4)70 (59.3)41 (51.3)107 (48.6)0.170
Angina70 (16.7)25 (21.2)8 (10.0)37 (16.8)0.118
Syncope45 (10.8)10 (8.5)15 (18.8)20 (9.1)0.037
Smoking101 (24.2)29 (24.6)15 (18.8)57 (25.9)0.437
DM143 (34.2)44 (37.3)31 (38.8)68 (30.9)0.318
Dyslipidaemia183 (43.8)47 (39.8)32 (40.0)104 (47.3)0.316
Hypertension335 (80.1)94 (79.7)62 (77.5)179 (81.4)0.750
CKD274 (65.6)79 (66.9)60 (75.0)135 (61.4)0.083
Atrial fibrillation136 (32.5)38 (32.2)33 (41.3)65 (29.5)0.160
IHD182 (43.5)61 (51.7)33 (41.3)88 (40.0)0.106
PAD71 (17.0)22 (18.6)20 (25.0)29 (13.2)0.047
Stroke66 (15.8)21 (17.8)9 (11.3)36 (16.4)0.438
COPD92 (22.0)25 (21.2)21 (26.3)46 (20.9)0.595
BNP, pg/mL215.4 (98.1–480.0)558.3 (269.1–953.9)*†197.7 (89.4–346.4)152.5 (71.1–287.4)<0.001
Transapical approach89 (21.3)20 (16.9)21 (26.3)48 (21.8)0.281
THV type
 Sapien XT346 (82.8)94 (79.7)65 (81.3)187 (85.0)0.428
 CoreValve28 (6.7)15 (12.7)4 (5.0)9 (4.1)0.008
 Sapien 344 (10.5)9 (7.6)11 (13.8)24 (10.9)0.373
  • Values are expressed as n (%), median (IQR).

  • *P<0.05 versus paradoxical LF-LG severe AS.

  • †P<0.05 versus NF-LG severe AS.

  • AS, aortic stenosis;BNP, brain natriuretic peptide;BSA, body surface area;CKD, chronic kidney disease;COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;DM, diabetes mellitus;IHD, ischaemic heart disease;LF, low-flow;LG, low-gradient;NF, normal-flow; NYHA, New York Heart Association;PAD, peripheral artery disease;STS, Society of Thoracic Surgeons' risk model;THV, transcatheter heart valve.