Table 3

Univariable predictors of female first authorship on stepwise logistic regression analysis

ParameterOR95% CIP value
GDP in 10 000 US$/capita (2010)1.06381.0491 to 1.0787<0.0001
Number of physicians per 1000 inhabitants (2010)1.09731.0702 to 1.1252<0.0001
Human development index (2010)3.44972.5881 to 4.5981<0.0001
Gender inequality index (2010)0.45550.3784 to 0.5484<0.0001
Senior author female3.06592.8990 to 3.2425<0.0001
By Subregion
 Australia and New Zealand0.94840.7959 to 1.1302ns
 Caribbean1.17860.5435 to 2.5557ns
 Central America0.95620.7101 to 1.2876ns
 Eastern Africa0.5940.2567 to 1.3746ns
 Eastern Asia0.5550.5113 to 0.6024<0.0001
 Eastern Europe1.39111.2113 to 1.5976<0.0001
 Middle Africa0.42430.0496 to 3.6331ns
 Northern Africa1.94471.3894 to 2.72190.0001
 Northern Europe1.26481.1589 to 1.3803<0.0001
 South America1.33561.1485 to 1.55320.0002
 South-Eastern Asia1.15170.8688 to 1.5267ns
 Southern Africa0.53040.1989 to 1.4142ns
 Southern Asia0.47980.4145 to 0.5553<0.0001
 Southern Europe0.96220.8819 to 1.0498ns
 Western Africa0.21210.0647 to 0.69560.0105
 Western Asia0.57370.5127 to 0.6420<0.0001
 Western Europe1.05640.9817 to 1.1369ns
 (Reference category North America)
  • Significant p values are in bold.

  • GDP, gross domestic product; ns, not significant.