Table 2

Multivariable-adjusted associations between pregnancy complications and myocardial infarction, heart failure and stroke

All eligible pregnancies
N=1 662 045
Myocardial infarction
MV-adjusted HR (95% CI)
n=558
Heart failure
MV-adjusted HR (95% CI)
n=3284
Stroke
MV-adjusted HR (95% CI)
n=973
PPCM
n=558
1.66 per 1000 PY
13.0 (4.1 to 40.9)
n=<10*
PY NA
39.2 (30.0 to 51.9)
n=56
2.19 per 1000 PY
7.7 (2.4 to 24.0)
n=<10*
PY NA
No PPCM (referent)
n=1 661 487
0.58 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=549
0.98 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=3228
1.22 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=964
1.01 per 1000 PY
HDP subtypes
Chronic HTN
n=12 458
0.54 per 1000 PY
6.3 (4.6 to 8.7)
n=47
0.90 per 1000 PY
3.9 (3.3 to 4.7)
n=152
1.12 per 1000 PY
3.4 (2.4 to 4.8)
n=37
0.88 per 1000 PY
Gestational HTN
n=43 073
5.98 per 1000 PY
2.3 (1.6 to 3.4)
n=28
0.98 per 1000 PY
2.5 (2.1 to 2.9)
n=188
1.39 per 1000 PY
1.4 (1.0 to 2.0)
n=33
1.15 per 1000 PY
Pre-eclampsia
n=56 419
0.59 per 1000 PY
2.5 (1.9 to 3.4)
n=49
0.89 per 1000 PY
3.0 (2.7 to 3.4)
n=355
1.69 per 1000 PY
2.3 (1.8 to 3.0)
n=79
1.08 per 1000 PY
Chronic HTN and gestational HTN
n=4907
0.54 per 1000 PY
2.0 (0.8 to 4.8)
n=<10*
PY NA
3.3 (2.5 to 4.5)
n=45
1.16 per 1000 PY
3.0 (1.7 to 5.4)
n=12
1.67 per 1000 PY
Chronic HTN and pre-eclampsia
n=5743
0.61 per 1000 PY
5.0 (3.1 to 8.0)
n=22
1.01 per 1000 PY
5.4 (4.5 to 6.6)
n=135
1.36 per 1000 PY
7.6 (5.4 to 10.7)
n=43
1.03 per 1000 PY
No HTN/pre-eclampsia/gestational HTN (referent)
n=1 539 445
0.57 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=407
1.00 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=2409
1.17 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=769
1.01 per 1000 PY
Other adverse pregnancy outcomes
Gestational DM
n=107 636
0.59 per 1000 PY
1.0 (0.8 to 1.4)
n=57
0.88 per 1000 PY
1.3 (1.1 to 1.4)
n=320
1.36 per 1000 PY
1.42 (1.2 to 1.8)
n=103
1.09 per 1000 PY
No gestational DM (referent)
n=1 554 409
0.58 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=501
1.00 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=2964
1.22 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=870
1.01 per 1000 PY
IUGR
n=23 504
0.59 per 1000 PY
1.6 (1.1 to 2.5)
n=23
1.11 per 1000 PY
1.1 (0.9 to 1.4)
n=86
1.22 per 1000 PY
1.5 (1.0 to 2.1)
n=30
1.09 per 1000 PY
No IUGR (referent)
n=1 638 541
0.58 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=535
0.98 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=3198
1.23 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=943
1.02 per 1000 PY
Preterm birth
n=116 768
0.58 per 1000 PY
1.8 (1.4 to 2.3)
n=105
1.05 per 1000 PY
1.6 (1.4 to 1.7)
n=532
1.25 per 1000 PY
1.4 (1.1 to 1.6)
n=134
1.05 per 1000 PY
No preterm birth(referent)
n=1 545 277
0.58 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=453
0.97 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=2752
1.23 per 1000 PY
1.0
n=839
1.01 per 1000 PY
  • *In accordance with HCUP policies, categories in which there were fewer than 10 patients are represented simply as <10.

  • DM, diabetes mellitus;HCUP, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project; HDP, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy;HTN, hypertension;IUGR, intrauterine growth restriction; MV, multivariate;NA, not available; PPCM, peripartum cardiomyopathy;PY, person-years.