Table 3

Baseline clinical, echocardiographic and ETT test data of the study population according to rate of heart rate rise during ETT

Total (n=306)Normal HR response (n=229)Rapid early rise in HR (n=77)P value
Demographic and clinical data
 Age, years65±1264±1270±10<0.001
 Male, Female %67, 3370, 3056, 440.024
 Body mass index, kg/m2 28±1027±431±170.060
 Obesity80 (26%)41 (18%)35 (46%)<0.001
 Coronary artery disease152 (50%)106 (46%)46 (60%)0.062
 Diabetes mellitus43 (14%)28 (12%)15 (20%)0.093
 Hypercholesterolaemia202 (66%)148 (65%)54 (71%)0.326
 Clinic systolic BP, mm Hg142±19141±19144±200.225
 Clinic diastolic BP, mm Hg82±1382±1282±150.844
 Hypertension223 (73%)160 (70%)63 (82%)0.027
 Beta blockers treatment101 (33%)80 (35%)21 (27%)0.296
Echocardiographic data
 Aortic root diameter, cm3.3±0.53.4±0.53.2±0.40.028
 Left atrium diameter, cm3.8±0.73.7±0.74.0±0.70.006
 LV end-diastolic diameter, cm4.6±0.74.6±0.64.5±0.70.234
 LV mass index, g/m2.7 52±1752±1651±200.320
 LV ejection fraction, %60±761±758±70.030
 Mean aortic gradient, mm Hg34±1334±1236±170.293
 Effective orifice area, cm2 0.94±0.220.95±0.220.91±0.220.213
 Doppler stroke volume index, mL/m2 43±1343±1241±150.293
 Zva, mm Hg/mL/m2 4.37±1.254.25±1.174.70±1.430.034
ETT data
 Pre-ETT heart rate, bpm77±1576±1479±160.218
 Pre-ETT systolic BP, mm Hg141±19141±19143±180.290
 Pre-ETT diastolic BP, mm Hg85±1185±1185±120.860
 Peak heart rate, bpm134±25134±27131±190.257
 Peak systolic BP, mm Hg166±26166±26167±260.838
 Peak diastolic BP, mm Hg90±1690±1690±180.924
 Target heart rate achieved, %86±1586±1687±120.377
 Abnormal BP response113 (37%)83 (36)30 (39)0.763
 Exercise duration, min9.7±4.411.2±3.95.3±2.3<0.001
 Revealed symptoms87 (28.4%)38 (16.6%)49 (63.6%)<0.001
  • BP, blood pressure; ETT, exercise treadmill test; LV, left ventricular; METs, metabolic equivalents; Zva, valvuloarterial impedance; bpm, beats per minute.