Table 1

Patient clinical characteristics and echocardiographic findings

VariablensCADCADP values
(n=35)FFR≥0.8 (n=17)FFR<0.8 (n=23)
Age65±1371±9*72±7*0.04
Male/female18/176/1115/80.17
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)130±19139±22129±160.23
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)76±1076±1675±100.95
Heart rate (beats/min)63±1062±864±70.82
Hypertension, n (%)27 (77)11 (65)17 (74)0.63
Dyslipidaemia, n (%)20 (57)13 (77)17 (74)0.26
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)18 (51)8 (47)11 (48)0.94
Smoking, n (%)13 (37)5 (29)17 (74)*0.02
Multivessel disease, n (%)6 (35)10 (44)0.21
Visual stenosis, n (50%/75%/>90%)2/4/111/9/130.38
Aspirin/other antiplatelet medication, n (%)13 (37)16 (94)*23 (100)*<0.01
ACE inhibitor/ARB, n (%)17 (49)9 (53)17 (74)0.15
Beta-blocker, n (%)4 (11)4 (24)6 (26)0.26
Statin, n (%)16 (46)12 (71)*18 (78)*0.03
Haemoglobin (g/L)1.35±0.191.34±0.181.34±0.140.90
LDL-C (mg/dL)110±3396±33100±310.30
Haemoglobin A1c (%)6.4±1.06.3±0.96.4±0.90.95
BNP (pg/mL)24.4 (15.2, 43.3)25.6 (14.3, 55.1)28.9 (16.3, 53.2)0.95
Echocardiographic findings
 Left atrial diameter (cm)3.9±0.64.0±0.74.0±0.70.70
 LV thickness (septum) (cm)1.1±0.21.2±0.31.1±0.20.28
 LV thickness (posterior) (cm)1.1±0.21.1±0.21.1±0.10.84
 LV end-diastolic diameter (cm)4.7±0.54.8±0.74.7±0.40.88
 LV end-systolic diameter (cm)2.6±0.52.8±0.62.6±0.40.59
 LV end-diastolic volume index (mL/m2)36±1138±1134±100.55
 LV end-systolic volume index (mL/m2)12±612±512±50.91
 LV ejection fraction (%)65±668±766±90.41
Transmitral flow
 Peak E velocity (m/s)0.63±0.170.65±0.130.74±0.15*0.044
 Peak A velocity (m/s)0.78±0.160.87±0.130.90±0.16*0.04
 E/A0.82±0.230.76±0.150.84±0.220.50
 Deceleration time (ms)220±65264±77221±530.11
Pulmonary venous flow
 Peak S velocity (m/s)0.58±0.110.54±0.140.64±0.150.06
 Peak D velocity (m/s)0.41±0.080.36±0.080.44±0.12†0.04
 Peak A velocity (m/s)0.27±0.060.27±0.050.30±0.060.13
Mitral annulus TDI
 e′ (septum) (cm/s)6.5±2.65.4±1.26.7±1.70.11
 e′ (lateral) (cm/s)8.1±2.77.2±1.78.0±1.80.44
 E/e′ (septum)10.7±4.512.9±3.811.5±2.70.17
 E/e′ (lateral)8.5±3.59.6±3.19.5±2.30.33
  • Values are number (%), mean ± standard deviation, or median (25th, 75th percentiles).

  • *P<0.05 versus nsCAD group.

  • †P<0.05 versus FFR>0.8 group.

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; CAD, coronary artery disease; FFR, fractional flow reserve; LDL, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; LV, left ventricular; TDI, tissue Doppler imaging; e′, peak early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus; nsCAD, non-significant coronary artery disease.