Table 2

Physical triggers

During surgery/recent surgery12
Gastroenteritis/constipation6
COPD/bronchiectasis exacerbation5
Chest infection4
Heavy exertion3
Migraine3
Stroke/TIA2
Seizure2
Hypertension crisis2
Incidental epinephrine injection2
Alcohol/methadone detoxification2
Back pain2
Urinary tract infection2
Menorrhagia1
Chemotherapy1
Asystole post-DCCV for AF and given epinephrine1
Biliary colic1
Distal aorta and bilateral common iliac artery occlusion1
Status asthmaticus1
TACE for liver carcinoma1
Fetal demise on ultrasound1
Upper GI bleed1
Postpacemaker implantation1
Postcolonoscopy and postgastroscopy1
Septic arthritis1
Diverticular abscess1
Exacerbation of polymyalgia rheumatic1
Bowel obstruction1
Head injury due to fall1
Multiple fractures due to road traffic accident1
Exacerbation of Crohn’s disease1
After wasp stings1
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DCCV, direct current cardioversion; GI, gastrointestinal; TACE, transarterial chemoembolisation; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.