Table 1

Characteristics and events in patients with and without calcification in the ascending and descending aorta

AsAC− (n=248)AsAC+ (n=78)P valuesDAC− (n=244)DAC+ (n=83)P values
Demographics
 Age (years)53.8±10.460.1±6.9 < 0.001 53.4±10.061.1±7.2 < 0.001
 Sex (female)74 (29.8)36 (46.2) 0.01 74 (30.3)37 (44.6) 0.02
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)126±11126±110.22126±11126±100.59
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)80±1079±100.5380±1079±120.31
 BMI (kg/m2)26 (3)26 (6)0.0926 (5)27 (4)0.49
 BSA (m2)2.01 (0.28)1.93 (0.23)0.082.00 (0.31)1.95 (0.27)0.07
Medical history
 AF81 (32.7)21 (26.9)0.3481 (33.2)21 (25.3)0.18
 AF duration (months)26 (68)30 (87)0.7418 (68)43 (114)0.05
Risk factors
 Family history CAD78 (31.5)25 (32.1)0.9277 (31.6)26 (31.3)0.97
 Smoking52 (21.0)16 (20.8)0.9751 (21.0)17 (20.5)0.92
Medication use
 VKA24 (9.7)10 (12.8)0.4322 (9.0)12 (14.5)0.16
 Aspirin65 (26.4)19 (24.0)0.6863 (26.1)20 (24.7)0.80
 Beta blocker57 (23.3)16 (21.3)0.7355 (22.9)19 (23.5)0.92
 Digoxin5 (2.0)6 (8.0) 0.02 5 (2.1)6 (7.4) 0.02
 Non-dihydropyridine CCB10 (4.1)2 (2.7)0.579 (3.8)3 (3.7)0.99
 ACE inhibitor0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 ARB0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Diuretics0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Dihydropyridine CCB0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
 Statin17 (6.9)14 (17.9) 0.004 19 (7.8)12 (14.5)0.07
Echocardiography
 Left atrial diameter (cm)3.8±0.53.9±0.40.093.8±0.53.8±0.50.93
 IVSd (mm)8.5±0.98.4±1.00.658.5±1.08.6±1.00.50
 LVPWd (mm)8.5±0.98.5±1.00.988.4±1.08.5±0.80.37
 EDV (ml)118±27110±250.10118±27108±25 0.03
 ESV (ml)43±1639±120.1443±1540±140.24
 LVEF (%)62 (9)63 (8)0.0861 (8)62 (6)0.42
CT diameters
 Diameter AoV (mm)27±326±3 0.001 27±326±2 < 0.001
 Diameters sinus valsalva (mm)35±334±3 0.03 35±335±30.18
 Diameter STJ (mm)30±329±30.0630±330±30.19
 Diameter ascending aorta (mm)32±432±30.9432±432±30.13
 Diameter descending aorta (mm)27±227±20.2626±227±20.05
 Agatston score coronary arteries0 (1.38)36 (296) 0.002 0 (4.90)0 (198) 0.001
 Agatston score ascending aorta23 (53)0 (0)1 (22) < 0.001
 Agatston score descending aorta0 [0]6 (87) < 0.001 10 (334)
Events
 Stenosis >70% on CAG6 (2.4)4 (5.1)0.135 (2.8)5 (4.8)0.60
 uAP1 (0.4)0 (0.0)0.571 (0.4)0 (0.0)0.56
 NSTEMI3 (1.2)1 (1.3)0.963 (1.2)1 (1.2)>0.99
 STEMI1 (0.4)0 (0.0)0.570 (0.0)1 (1.2)0.09
 Patients with coronary event11 (4.4)5 (6.4)0.499 (3.7)7 (8.4)0.08
 Medication only7 (2.8)3 (3.8)0.986 (2.5)4 (4.8)0.20
 PCI3 (1.2)2 (2.6)0.403 (1.2)2 (2.4)0.68
 CABG1 (0.4)0 (0.0)0.570 (0.0)1 (1.2)0.25
  • Shown is n (%), mean±SD or median (IQR).

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; AoV, aortic valve; AsAC, ascending aorta calcification; BMI, body mass index; BSA, body surface area; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD, coronary artery disease; CAG, coronary angiogram; CCB, calcium channel blocker; DAC, descending aorta calcification; EDV, end diastolic volume; ESV, end systolic volume; IVSd, interventricular septum diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVPWd, left ventricular posterior wall diameter; NSTEMI, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; STEMI, ST elevation myocardial infarction; STJ, sinotubular junction; VKA, vitamin K antagonist; uAP, unstable angina pectoris.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation.