Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to categories of BMI for 14 753 participants in the biomarker cohort

CharacteristicsBMI categoryP values*
≥18.5–25 kg/m2
(n=3294)
>25–29.9 kg/m2
(n=5515)
≥30 kg/m2
(n=5944)
Demographics
 Age, median (IQR), years72.0 (66.0–78.0)71.0 (64.0–77.0)67.0 (61.0–73.0)<0.0001
 Female, n (%)1309 (39.7)1665 (30.2)2249 (37.8)<0.0001
 Ethnicity, n (%)<0.0001
  Caucasian2155 (65.4)4568 (82.8)5591 (94.1)
  Asian1037 (31.5)805 (14.6)214 (3.6)
  Black39 (1.2)53 (1.0)84 (1.4)
  Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific0 (0.0)1 (0.0)2 (0.0)
  American Indian/Alaska Native11 (0.3)19 (0.3)8 (0.1)
  Other52 (1.6)69 (1.3)44 (0.7)
Clinical
 Systolic blood pressure, median (IQR), mm Hg130.0 (120.0–140.0)130.0 (120.0–140.0)131.0 (120.0–140.0)<0.0001
 Heart rate, median (IQR), bpm75.0 (65.0–85.0)74.0 (65.0–84.0)76.0 (66.0–86.0)<0.0001
 History of hypertension, n (%)2631 (79.9)4784 (86.7)5537 (93.2)<0.0001
 History of stroke, TIA or systemic embolism, n (%)845 (25.7)1078 (19.5)925 (15.6)<0.0001
 History of myocardial infarction, n (%)376 (11.4)712 (12.9)816 (13.7)0.006
 Peripheral artery disease, n (%)166 (5.0)257 (4.7)301 (5.1)0.56
 Heart failure, n (%)955 (29.0)1643 (29.8)1974 (33.2)<0.0001
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%)529 (16.1)1186 (21.5)1952 (32.8)<0.0001
 Paroxysmal AF, n (%)497 (15.1)830 (15.1)911 (15.3)0.91
 eGFR, median (IQR), mL/min/17.3268.2 (55.0–81.6)67.9 (55.7–80.5)69.4 (56.3–83.3)<0.0001
 LVEF, mean (SD), %56.0 (45.0–64.0)56.0 (47.0–64.0)55.0 (47.0–63.0)0.75
 Left atrial size, median (IQR), cm4.5 (3.9–5.0)4.6 (4.1–5.2)4.7 (4.2–5.2)<0.0001
Smoker, n (%)304 (9.2)445 (8.1)451 (7.6)0.02
Alcohol, per day, n (%)<0.0001
 None2145 (65.2)3042 (55.2)3338 (56.2)
 <31072 (32.6)2319 (42.1)2454 (41.3)
 >373 (2.2)149 (2.7)148 (2.5)
History of anaemia, n (%)243 (7.4)325 (5.9)420 (7.1)0.01
History of spontaneous or clinically relevant bleed, n (%)499 (15.2)906 (16.4)1001 (16.8)0.10
Baseline medication, n (%)
 Clopidogrel74 (2.2)98 (1.8)85 (1.4)0.02
 Aspirin1015 (30.8)1700 (30.8)1863 (31.3)0.80
 Calcium channel blocker879 (26.7)1653 (30.0)1987 (33.4)<0.0001
 Beta-blocker1856 (56.3)3477 (63.0)4031 (67.8)<0.0001
 ACE inhibitor/ARB2014 (61.1)3845 (69.7)4597 (77.3)<0.0001
 Lipid-lowering agent1225 (37.2)2427 (44.0)2947 (49.6)<0.0001
 NSAID220 (6.7)368 (6.7)653 (11.0)<0.0001
 Prior vitamin K antagonist use1574 (47.8)2916 (53.0)3460 (58.3)<0.0001
Biomarker
 hs-CRP (mg/L)1.5 (0.7–3.6)1.9 (0.9–4.1)2.9 (1.4–5.8)<0.0001
 IL-6 (ng/L)2.2 (1.3–3.9)2.2 (1.4–3.6)2.5 (1.7–4.1)<0.0001
 GDF-15 (ng/L)1490.5 (1058.2–2218.8)1369.5 (970.0–2002.8)1328.0 (946.0–1980.5)<0.0001
 Troponin T (ng/L)11.3 (7.7–17.1)11.1 (7.6–16.8)10.7 (7.4–16.2)<0.001
 NT-pro-BNP (ng/L)879.5 (443.0–1544.5)724.0 (378.0–1255.8)622.5 (324.0–1070.0)<0.0001
 Cystatin C (mg/L)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.2)0.01
  • *P value from the χ2 test (categorical variables) or Kruskal-Wallis test (continuous variables).

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, Body Mass Index; GDF-15, growth differentiation factor-15; IL-6, interleukin 6; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NT-pro-BNP, N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein.