Table 3

Analyses of the association between infertility treatments and risk of preterm birth in newborns with CHD

CHDInfertility treatmentsn% (95% CI)P valuesUnadjusted OR*95% CIAdjusted† OR*95% CI
All CHDsNone25512.7 (11.3 to 14.3)1.0Ref1.0Ref
All methods combined‡2840.6 (28.9 to 53.1)<0.0014.72.8 to to 8.6
IVF±ICSI‡2543.1 (30.2 to 56.8)5.23.0 to to 9.7
Isolated CHDNone17110.6 (9.1 to 12.2)1.0Ref1.0Ref
All methods combined‡2138.9 (25.9 to 53.1)<0.0015.43.0 to to 9.8
IVF±ICSI‡1940.4 (26.4 to 55.7)5.73.1 to to 10.8
Isolated major CHDNone10216.6 (13.8 to 19.8)1.0Ref1.0Ref
All methods combined‡1047.6 (25.7 to 70.2)<0.0014.61.9 to to 9.4
IVF±ICSI‡952.9 (27.8 to 77.0)5.62.1 to to 11.2
  • *ORs represent the odds of preterm birth in fetuses with CHD exposed to infertility treatments relative to the odds of preterm birth in fetuses with CHD unexposed to infertility treatments.

  • †Adjusted for maternal sociodemographic characteristics (age, geographical origin, occupation), gravidity, diabetes mellitus, vaginal bleeding, invasive prenatal testing, prenatal diagnosis of CHD, intrauterine growth restriction, medical induction of labour or caesarean delivery before labour and year of birth.

  • ‡Including induction of ovulation.

  • CHD, congenital heart defect; ICSI, intracytoplasmic sperm injection; IVF, in vitro fertilisation; Ref, reference.