Table 2

Case–control and cross-sectional studies of smokeless tobacco use and circulatory risks

StudyCountryStudy populationStudy periodSexAgeSample sizeSmokeless tobacco typeConditionsNewcastle-Ottawa score
Huhtasaari et al 36
1992
SwedenCases and controls were participants in the MONICA study1989–1991M35–64 years585 cases
589 controls
SnusAcute myocardial infarction8
Huhtasaari et al 37
1999
SwedenCases and controls were participants in the MONICA study matched on age and county1991–1993M25–64 years687 cases
687 controls
SnusAcute myocardial infarction7
Asplund et al 38
2003
SwedenCases and controls were participants in the MONICA study or Vasterbotten Intervention Project (VIP) matched on sex, age, area, examination date and cohort1985–2000M25–74 years276 cases
551 controls
SnusStroke6
Hergens et al 40
2005
SwedenCases and controls were participants in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Project and Vasternorrland Heart Epidemiology Project matched on age and hospital areaStockholm—1992–1993, Vasternorrland—1993–1994MStockholm—45–70 years, Vasternorrland—45–65 years1432 cases
1810 controls
SnusAcute myocardial infarction8
Wennberg et al 39
2007
SwedenCases and controls were participants in the MONICA and VIP studies matched on sex, age, survey date and area1985–1999M and F30+ years525 cases
1798 controls
SnusAcute myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death6
Cross-sectional study
Mushtaq et al 11
2010
USAParticipants from Oklahoma in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System1999–2001M and F18+ years10 332 participants
1796 ever smokeless tobacco users
Smokeless tobaccoAngina, coronary heart disease, heart attack, myocardial infarction or strokeNA
  • MONICA, Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Health; NA, not applicable.