Table 3

Selected estimates of circulatory risk for smokeless tobacco users

NumberStudyCountrySexSmokeless tobacco StatusCigarette smoking statusConditionMeasureEstimates (95% CI)Adjustment factors
1Huhtasaari et al 37
1999
SwedenMFormerNeverIHDOR1.23 (0.54 to 2.82)Age, area
2Accortt et al 33
2002
USAMEverNeverIHDHR0.6 (0.3 to 1.2)Age, race, income, alcohol, exercise, diet, blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI
3Accortt et al 33
2002
USAFEverNeverIHDHR1.4 (0.8 to 2.2)Age, race, income, alcohol, exercise, diet, blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI
4Accortt et al 33
2002
USAMEverNeverStrokeHR0.7 (0.2 to 2.0)Age, race, income, alcohol, exercise, diet, blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI
5Accortt et al 33
2002
USAFEverNeverStrokeHR1.0 (0.3 to 2.9)Age, race, income, alcohol, exercise, diet, blood pressure, cholesterol, BMI
6Henley et al 34
2005 (CPS I)
USAMCurrentNeverIHDHR1.12 (1.03 to 1.21)Age, race, education, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
7Henley et al 34
2005 (CPS I)
USAMCurrentNeverStrokeHR1.46 (1.31 to 1.64)Age, race, education, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
8Henley et al 34
2005 (CPS I)
USAMCurrentNeverOther CIDHR1.05 (0.91 to 1.22)Age, race, education, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
9Henley et al 34
2005 (CPS II)
USAMCurrentNeverIHDHR1.26 (1.08 to 1.47)Age, race, education, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
10Henley et al 34
2005 (CPS II)
USAMCurrentNeverStrokeHR1.40 (1.10 to 1.79)Age, race, education, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
11Henley et al 34
2005 (CPS II)
USAMCurrentNeverOther CIDHR1.07 (0.82 to 1.39)Age, race, education, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
12Henley et al 34
2005 (CPS II)
USAMFormerNeverIHDHR0.70 (0.52 to 0.95)Age, race, education, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
13Henley et al 34
2005 (CPS II)
USAMFormerNeverStrokeHR1.21 (0.83 to 1.76)Age, race, education, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
14Henley et al 34
2005 (CPS II)
USAMFormerNeverOther CIDHR1.20 (0.83 to 1.72)Age, race, education, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
15Hergens et al 40
2005
SwedenMCurrentNeverIHDOR0.73 (0.35 to 1.50)Age, hospital area
16Hergens et al 40
2005
SwedenMFormerNeverIHDOR1.20 (0.46 to 3.10)Age, hospital area
17Johansson et al 23
2005
SwedenMCurrentNeverIHDHR1.41 (0.61 to 3.28)Age, physical activity, BMI, diabetes, hypertension
18Haglund et al 24
2007
SwedenMCurrentNon-currentIHDIRR0.77 (0.51 to 1.15)Age, area, socioeconomic status, exercise, health
19Haglund et al 24
2007
SwedenMCurrentNon-currentStrokeIRR1.07 (0.65 to 1.77)Age, area, socioeconomic status, exercise, health
20Henley et al35
2007
USAMCurrentFormerIHDHR1.13 (1.00 to 1.29)Age, race, education, previous smoking, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
21Henley et al35
2007
USAMCurrentFormerStrokeHR1.24 (1.01 to 1.53)age, race, education, previous smoking, BMI, exercise, alcohol, employment, diet, aspirin
22Hergens et al 25
2007
SwedenMFormerNeverIHDHR0.76 (0.55 to 1.05)Age, BMI, region of residence
23Wennberg et al 39
2007
SwedenMFormerNeverIHDOR0.66 (0.32 to 1.34)Age, sex, BMI, physical activity, education, cholesterol
24Hergens et al 26
2008
SwedenMFormerNeverStrokeHR0.72 (0.50 to 1.02)age, BMI, region of residence
25Hergens et al 32
2008
SwedenMCurrentNeverHypertensionHR1.43 (1.12 to 1.83)Age, BMI, region of residence
26Hergens et al 32
2008
SwedenMFormerNeverHypertensionHR0.85 (0.40 to 1.79)Age, BMI, region of residence
27Roosaar et al 27
2008
SwedenMEverNever (daily)IHDHR1.15 (0.97 to 1.37)Age, period, area, alcohol consumption, age×period, age×smoking, age×area
28Hansson et al 28
2009
SwedenMFormerNeverIHDHR1.07 (0.56 to 2.03)Age, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol
29Hansson et al 28
2009
SwedenMFormerNeverStrokeHR1.35 (0.65 to 2.82)Age, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol
30Mushtaq et al 11
2010
USAM and FCurrentNeverIHD and strokeOR1.14 (0.55 to 2.39)Age, race, sex, BMI
31Mushtaq et al 11
2010
USAM and FFormerNeverIHD and strokeOR1.25 (0.77 to 2.03)Age, race, sex, BMI
32Yatsuya et al 10
2010
USAMCurrentNon-currentIHD and strokeHR1.31 (1.06 to 1.61)Age, sex, race, education, income, alcohol, exercise, cigarette smoking, cigar and pipe use, secondhand smoke exposure
33Yatsuya et al 10
2010
USAMFormerNon-currentIHD and strokeHR0.90 (0.73 to 1.11)Age, sex, race, education, income, alcohol, exercise, cigarette smoking, cigar and pipe use, secondhand smoke exposure
34Arefalk et al 30
2012
SwedenMCurrentAny*Heart failureHR2.09 (1.00 to 4.39)Age, smoking, BMI, alcohol, occupation, health conditions
35Arefalk et al 30
2012
SwedenMCurrentNeverHeart failureHR1.24 (0.97 to 1.59)Age, BMI, region, prior heart attack, blood pressure
36Arefalk et al 30
2012
SwedenMFormerNeverHeart failureHR0.99 (0.44 to 2.22)Age, BMI, region, prior heart attack, blood pressure
37Hansson et al 18
2012
SwedenMCurrentNeverIHDHR1.04 (0.93 to 1.17)Age, BMI
38Arefalk et al 31
2014
SwedenM and FContinuingAnyCardiovascular eventsHR0.38 (0.11 to 1.32)Age, sex, smoking, health conditions, body measures, medications, occupation, exercise
39Hansson et al 19
2014
SwedenMCurrentNeverStrokeHR1.04 (0.92 to 1.17)Age, BMI
40Timberlake et al 9
2017
USAMCurrentNeverIHDHR1.24 (1.05 to 1.46)Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income
41Timberlake et al 9
2017
USAMCurrentNeverStrokeHR0.92 (0.67 to 1.27)Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income
42Timberlake et al 9
2017
USAMFormerNeverIHDHR0.93 (0.66 to 1.30)Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income
43Timberlake et al 9
2017
USAMFormerNeverStrokeHR1.33 (0.81 to 2.18)Age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income
  • *Estimates for any cigarette smoking status were calculated for study participants without restriction by current or former smoking status.

  • BMI, body mass index; CID, circulatory disease; CPS, Cancer Prevention Study; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; IRR, incidence rate ratio.