Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and the control patients

CHFControlP values
Male (%)57 (53)4 (27)0.058
BMI (kg/m2)17.5±3.017.8±2.60.730
Vital signs
  Heart rate (bpm)70±1175±140.085
  Resting systolic BP (mm Hg)112±17116±130.379
  Resting diastolic BP (mm Hg)64±1269±130.099
  Non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (%)38 (35)
  Valvular (%)70 (65)
Coronary risk factors
  Diabetes mellitus (%)6 (6)0 (0)0.353
  Hypertension (%)52 (48)6 (40)0.557
  Hyperlipidaemia (%)34 (32)1 (7)0.046
  Ever smoked (%)37 (34)5 (33)0.944
Baseline use of medications
  ACE inhibitor or ARB (%)62 (57)3 (20)0.006
  β-blocker (%)46 (43)2 (13)0.030
  Aldosterone receptor antagonist (%)32 (30)0 (0)0.014
  Loop diuretic (%)48 (44)0 (0)<0.001
Laboratory data
  Alb (g/dL)4.2±0.44.4±0.20.043
  UA (mg/dL)6.0±1.74.4±1.3<0.001
  eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)65.5 (53.5–73.5)74.5 (64.6–98.5)0.028
  Sodium (mEq/L)140.7±3.5141.3±1.40.511
  T-bil (mg/dL)0.8±0.50.7±0.30.282
  CRP (mg/dL)0.20±0.450.03±0.020.157
  hsTnT (ng/mL)0.012 (0.006–0.020)
  BNP (pg/mL)175.4 (73.8–287.3)25.5 (11.6–37.0)0.001
  LV ejection fraction (%)49±1660±20.013
  LA volume index (mL/m2)62 (41–82)35 (27–41)0.039
E/e′ ratio14.0±6.37.9±2.3<0.001
 TRPG (mm Hg)28.9±10.121.0±7.10.014
Haemodynamic data
  Mean PCWP (mm Hg)11.5±6.0
  Mean PAP (mm Hg)19.0±6.4
  Mean RAP (mm Hg)4.3±3.0
  CI (L/min/m2)2.96±0.6
  SvO2 (%)68.7±5.9
  • Values are means±SD, median (IQR), or n (%).

  • Alb, albumin; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; BP, blood pressure; CI, cardiac index; CRP, C-reactive protein; E/e', ratio of early transmitral velocity to tissue Doppler mitral annular velocity during early diastole; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; hsTnT, high-sensitivity troponin T; LA, left atrial; LV, left ventricular; PAP, pulmonary artery pressure; PCWP, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; RAP, right atrial pressure; SvO2, mixed venous oxygen saturation; T-bil, total bilirubin; TRPG, tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient; UA, uric acid.