Table 1

Baseline characteristics of subjects who developed new-onset heart failure and of subjects without heart failure during follow-up

HF (n, %) n=162No HF (n, %) n=3685P values
Age at enrolment (years)75 (70, 79)69 (65, 75)<0.0001
Male98 (60%)2003 (54%)0.13
SBP (mm Hg)143±19141±180.06
DBP (mm Hg)79±1181±100.019
PP (mm Hg)65±1660±15<0.0001
Heart rate (bpm)68 (61, 76)70 (63, 79)0.013
BMI (kg/m2)29 (26, 32)28 (25, 31)<0.0001
Waist circumference (cm)104±13100±190.0035
Hypertension145 (90%)3149 (85%)0.17
Diabetes44 (27%)659 (18%)0.0048
Myocardial infarction37 (23%)354 (10%)<0.0001
Coronary revascularisation42 (26%)534 (14%)0.0002
Stroke/TIA21 (13%)400 (11%)0.37
PVD15 (9%)110 (3%)0.0002
AF37 (23%)356 (10%)<0.0001
Pacemaker7 (4.3%)59 (1.6%)0.020
OSA21 (13%)258 (7%)0.0078
Smoker (current or former)93 (57%)1796 (49%)0.037
Alcohol>2 drinks/day*39 (24%)723 (20%)0.19
Biochemistry and haematology
NT-proBNP (pmol/L)36 (20, 75)12 (6, 22)<0.0001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)67±1873±17<0.0001
Haemoglobin (g/dL)13.7±1.614.0±1.30.013
WCC (x109/L)7.6 (6.3, 8.6)7.1 (6.1, 8.2)0.030
Platelets (x109/L)218 (180, 253)229 (195, 267)0.013
Medication
β-Blocker61 (38%)828 (22%)<0.0001
ACE inhibitor62 (38%)1125 (31%)0.045
ARB70 (43%)1735 (47%)0.34
ACE inhibitor or ARB124 (77%)2726 (74%)0.52
CCB51 (31%)998 (27%)0.24
Statin97 (60%)1896 (51%)0.037
Thiazide diuretic48 (30%)1134 (31%)0.79
Loop diuretic19 (11.7%)90 (2.4%)<0.0001
Aspirin73 (45%)1530 (42%)0.37
NSAID23 (14.2%)301 (8.2%)0.013
Clopidogrel19 (11.7%)221 (6.0%)0.0069
Warfarin20 (12.3%)158 (4.3%)<0.0001
  • Data shown as mean±SD, median (IQR) or n (%).

  • *Refers to consumption of more than two standard drinks on any day.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; ARB, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; CCB, calcium channel blocker; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HF, heart failure; HFpEF, heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; HFrEF, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction; NT-proBNP, amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea; PP, pulse pressure; PVD, peripheral vascular disease; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; VHF, valvular heart failure; WCC, white cell count.