Table 3

Echocardiographic characteristics

TotalNo LELEP values
Standard echocardiography
 Cardiac dimensions
  LVEDD (mm)47±547±546±60.150
  LVESD (mm)29±430±428±50.012
  IVSd (mm)10.0±2.49.0±1.511.7±2.6<0.001
  LVPWd (mm)9.9±2.48.9±1.711.5±2.5<0.001
  LVMI (g/m²)92±3082±23108±32<0.001
  RVD_middle (mm)27±427±526±50.478
  RAA (cm²)14±314±314±30.458
  LAVI (mL/m²)24±921±628±11<0.001
 RV function
  TAPSE (mm)23.0±3.923.8±3.721.8±4.00.002
  sPAP (mm Hg)26±725±527±90.136
 LV systolic function
  LVEF (%)66±665±668±60.007
 LV diastolic function
  E wave (cm/s)87±1986±1689±210.343
  E/A ratio1.47±0.541.5±0.51.4±0.60.653
  DT (ms)207±50203±43214±580.173
  IVRT (ms)89±2479±17104±27<0.001
  Septal e′ (cm/s)8.6±3.310.1±2.96.3±2.3<0.001
  Septal E/e′ ratio11.7±5.89.1±3.115.8±6.7<0.001
  Lateral e′ (cm/s)11.9±4.213.7±3.89.2±3.1<0.001
  Lateral E/e′ ratio8.3±3.76.7±2.010.7±4.3<0.001
  Diastolic dysfunction<0.001
   Normal95 (65.1)76 (85.4)19 (33.3)
   Mild24 (16.4)10 (11.2)14 (24.6)
   Moderate19 (13.0)3 (2.1)16 (28.1)
   Severe8 (5.5)08 (14.0)
Speckle-tracking imaging (18 segments averaged)
 LS_sys (%)−17.9±3.3−18.9±2.5−16.3±3.7<0.001
 LSr_sys (s−1)−0.99±0.16−1.03±0.15−0.94±0.170.001
 LSr_E (s−1)1.36±0.411.49±0.391.16±0.36<0.001
 LSr_A (s−1)0.66±0.230.66±0.220.65±0.250.938
 E/LSr_E (cm)69.0±25.360.5±16.382.6±30.8<0.001
  • Continuous variables are presented as mean±SD, and categorical variables are presented with counts and percentages.

  • P<0.05 vs no LE group.

  • DT, deceleration time of E wave; E wave, mitral inflow early diastolic filling velocity; E/A ratio, the ratio of mitral inflow early filling velocity to late diastolic filling velocity; E/e′, the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to mitral annular tissue velocity; E/LSr_E, the ratio of mitral inflow early diastolic filling velocity to LSr_E; e′, tissue Doppler-derived mitral annular early diastolic velocity; IVRT, isovolumetric relaxation time; IVSd, end-diastolic interventricular septal thickness; LAVI, left atrial volume indexed to body surface area; LE, late gadolinium enhancement; LS_sys, longitudinal systolic strain; LSr_A, longitudinal late diastolic strain rate; LSr_E, longitudinal early diastolic strain rate; LSr_sys, longitudinal systolic strain rate; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESD, left ventricular end-systolic dimension; LVMI, left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area; LVPWd, end-diastolic posterior wall thickness; RAA, end-systolic right atrial area; RV, right ventricle; RVD, end-diastolic mid-right ventricular diameter; RWT, relative wall thickness sPAP, systolic pulmonary artery pressure; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.