Table 2

Doppler echocardiographic data prior to ViV procedure according to the presence or absence of suboptimal aortic valve haemodynamic performance after ViV

Whole cohort
n=79
Valve haemodynamics after ViVP values
Adequate:
MG <20 mm Hg and AR ≤mild n=31 (39.2%)
Suboptimal:
MG ≥20 mm Hg and/or AR ≥moderate n=48 (60.8%)
Time to failure, years11.1±4.211.3±4.010.9±4.30.724
BP mode of failure, n (%)0.035
 AS32 (40.5)9 (29.0)23 (47.9)
 AR25 (31.7)15 (48.4)10 (20.8)
 Mixed22 (27.8)7 (22.6)15 (31.3)
LVEF, %58.9±10.955.8±13.160.8±8.90.047
Stroke volume, mL82.2±20.779.6±18.783.8±21.90.398
MG, mm Hg36.6±20.228.0±17.442.2±20.10.002
EOA, cm2 1.04±0.521.21±0.600.95±0.440.031
EOAi, cm2/m2 0.57±0.290.68±0.340.50±0.230.009
Doppler velocity index0.27±0.130.33±0.180.24±0.090.008
AR, n (%)0.368
 None7 (9.0)1 (3.3)6 (12.5)
 Trace15 (19.2)5 (16.7)10 (20.8)
 Mild11 (14.1)4 (13.3)7 (14.6)
 Moderate25 (32.1)9 (30.0)16 (33.3)
 Severe20 (25.6)11 (36.7)9 (18.8)
AR ≥moderate, n (%)45 (57.7)20 (66.7)25 (52.1)0.205
  • AR, aortic regurgitation; AS, aortic stenosis; BP, bioprosthesis; BSA, body surface area; EOA, effective orifice area; EOAi, indexed EOA; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MG, mean transvalvular pressure gradient; Mixed, mixed dysfunction; PPM, prosthesis–patient mismatch; ViV, valve-in-valve implantation.