Table 2

Level of benefit of pharmacist’s intervention on clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes in cardiovascular disease

OutcomeLevel of benefit
Blood pressure control (hypertension)+
Glycaemic control (diabetes)+
Smoking cessation+
Lipid profile (lipid management)+/–
(+ for total cholesterol;
+/– for LDL, HDL cholesterol or triglycerides)
Cardiovascular outcomes (morbidity and mortality)+/–
(+ in case of HF)
Medication adherence+/–
(+ in case of HF and CHD)
Health literacy+
Quality of the medication use process+
Healthcare costs+/–
  • +, proved benefit; +/–, benefit unclear; CHD, coronary heart disease; HDL, high density lipoprotein; HF, heart failure; LDL, low density lipoprotein.