(C) Exposure to passive smoking in non-smokers and ex-smokers
Exposed to passive smoking at home and in public (n=26)Not exposed to passive smoking (n=65)
Age (years), mean (range)59 (43–70)54 (20–71)
Hs-CRP (mg/L)1.20 (0.69–3.02)1.33 (0.72–2.34)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.73 (4.91–6.57)*5.23 (4.40–5.77)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)3.37 (2.33–4.41)3.17 (2.58–3.72)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.35 (1.18–1.58)1.45 (1.22–1.69)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.50 (0.99–2.40)*1.03 (0.78–1.40)
Total cholesterol: HDL4.23 (3.34–4.93)*3.61 (2.93–4.03)
Non-HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L)4.36 (3.39–5.18)*3.70 (2.98–4.33)
BMI (kg/m2)29.8 (27.0–32.6)28.7 (26.1–32.1)
  • The p values, calculated according to the two-tailed Mann-Whitney tests, compare that category with non-smokers for (A) and (B) and with the not exposed for (C).

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01.

  • †16 male smoker controls did not specify the number of cigarettes smoked and were thus excluded from this analysis.

  • BMI. body mass index; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C reactive protein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.