Table 2

Mean values of echocardiographic parameters according to smoking status

VariableNever smokersFormer smokersCurrent smokers
 MeanRangeSEMMeanRangeSEMp (to never smokers)MeanRangeSEMp (to never smokers)
Left ventricular structure and function
 LVEDV, mL81.936.0–168.00.485.031.2––
 LVESV, mL32.68.4–––
 LVEF, %60.338.7–––
 LVM, g149.763.6–469.62.3159.867.4–336.12.90.01156.860.3–325.62.90.09
Right ventricular structure and function
 RVAd, cm214.54.9–––
 TAPSE, cm2.10.9–––
 RV peak S velocity12.05.3–––
 RVOT VTI, cm17.88.7–––
 RVSV, mL49.313.9–141.40.948.314.0––
 TR max peak gradient, mm Hg18.30.1–3.30.0218.11.6––
 TR max velocity, cm/s209.111.1–329.22.0207.563.3–325.83.10.63195.760.2–334.53.20.0003
  • Bold denotes statistically significant associations (p≤0.01).

  • E/e′, transmitral E velocity to mitral annulus e′ velocity; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVM, left ventricular mass; RVAd, right ventricular area at diastole; RVFAC, right ventricular fractional area change; RVOT, right ventricular outflow tract; RVSV, right ventricular stroke volume; RWT, relative wall thickness; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TR, tricuspid regurgitation; VTI, velocity time integral.