Table 4

Multivariate analysis of different measures of tobacco usage

VariableAge at initiationCigarettes per dayLifetime pack-years
Coefficient estimatep ValueCoefficient estimatep ValueCoefficient estimatep Value
Left ventricular structure and function
 LVEDV, mL0.−0.020.16
 LVESV, mL0.0590.050.0140.52−0.010.18
 LVEF, %−0.0020.87−0.0040.80−0.0020.51
 LVM, g−<0.00010.33<0.0001
 RVAd, cm20.020.240.0020.850.00080.76
Right ventricular structure and function
 TAPSE, cm0.000040.98−0.00050.68−0.0015<0.0001
 RV peak S−0.0170.030.0170.0001−0.007<0.0001
 RVOT VTI, cm0.050.0002−0.0250.0009−0.014<0.0001
 RVSV, mL0.63<0.0001−0.28<0.0001−0.07<0.0001
 TR max peak gradient, mm Hg0.0350.060.098<0.0001−0.010.02
 TR max velocity, cm/s0.360.0050.68<0.0001−0.050.16
  • Adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes and BMI.

  • Bold denotes statistically significant associations (p≤0.01).

  • BMI, body mass index; E/e′, transmitral E velocity to mitral annulus e′ velocity; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVM, left ventricular mass; RVAd, right ventricular area at diastole; RVFAC, right ventricular fractional area change; RVOT, right ventricular outflow tract; RVSV, right ventricular stroke volume; RWT, relative wall thickness; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; TR, tricuspid regurgitation; VTI, velocity time integral.