Table 5

Means of current smokers (daily smokers versus non-daily smokers)

VariableNon-daily smokersDaily smokers
 MeanSEMeanSEp (compared with non-daily)
Left ventricular structure and function
 LVEDV, mL85.53.686.91.60.43
 LVESV, mL35.11.936.71.10.08
 LVEF, %601.058.40.7<0.0001
 LVM, g148.14.0158.03.4<0.0001
 RWT0.40.010.390.010.017
 E/e′8.80.39.60.3<0.0001
Right ventricular structure and function
 RVAd, cm214.90.615.20.30.3
 RVFAC0.450.010.440.010.07
 TAPSE, cm2.20.052.010.04<0.0001
 RV peak S velocity, cm/s12.20.411.20.2<0.0001
 RVOT VTI, cm17.50.416.50.3<0.0001
 Right ventricular stroke volume, mL46.62.245.51.50.4
 TR max peak gradient, mm Hg17.31.115.90.60.0017
 TR max velocity, cm/s201.97.6194.23.80.01
  • Bold denotes statistically significant associations (p≤0.01).

  • E/e′, transmitral E velocity to mitral annulus e′ velocity; LVEDV, left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVESV, left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVM, left ventricular mass; RVAd, right ventricular area at diastole; RVFAC, right ventricular fractional area change; RVOT, right ventricular outflow tract; RWT, relative wall thickness; TAPSE, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; Tr, tricuspid regurgitation; VTI, velocity time integral.