Table 1

An increase in the intake of refined carbohydrate and sugar paralleled the rise in atherosclerotic disease in the Greenland Eskimos

Northwest Greenland Eskimos 1940s and priorNorthwest Greenland Eskimos 1970 onward
Low rate of atherosclerotic disease (2–4 times less atherosclerotic disease*)Normal or higher rate of atherosclerotic disease**
Carbohydrate intake=2–8% of total calories (1855)

Refined sugar intake=6 g/day (1855)*** 1½ teaspoonful of sugar/day

Description—a near absence of refined sugar in the diet
Carbohydrate intake=39% of total calories(by 1955)

Refined sugar intake=164–175 g/day (1970s)
40–44 teaspoonful of sugar/day

Description—‘sugar was used abundantly, about five times a day, mostly in coffee or tea’. Indeed, the Eskimo had ‘terrible teeth from their habit of sipping their coffee through a sugar cube’.
  • *Versus Korpo, Finland; **versus western populations; ***Eskimos in the Southern Inspectorate.