Table 4

Perceived stress assessment

MeasurementIntervention (mean±SD)Control (mean±SD)p Value*p Value within the FCEM groupp Value within the control groupp Value between groups
Measurement 267.69±0.9132.69±3.11<0.0001
Measurement 370.26±0.5431.61±3.10<0.0001
Follow-up 168.17±1.5134.51±3.25<0.0001
Follow-up 268.46±0.9533.60±2.06<0.0001
Follow-up 368.34±1.1434.00±2.24<0.0001
Follow-up 468.54±1.0733.77±2.36<0.0001
Follow-up 568.34±1.0634.37±2.21<0.0001
Follow-up 668.40±1.1933.63±2.30<0.0001
Follow-up 768.60±1.3834.35±1.97<0.0001
Follow-up 864.71±1.9833.66±2.11<0.0001
  • *p Value based on independent samples Student's t test.

  • p Value based on repeated measures ANOVA. Dependent on the results of Mauchly's test, p values presented are based on the Greenhouse-Geisser test.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; FCEM, Family-Centered Empowerment Model.