Table 3

Costs of care 12 months before and after exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation following heart valve surgery

CR group (n=277)No CR group (n=223)Difference between group difference
BeforeAfterDifferenceBeforeAfterDifferencep-Value
Primary care (visits)
 General practitioners337 (17)544 (23)207 (22)352 (17)569 (25)217 (22)−10.0 (−70 to 50)0.74
 Medical specialists153 (21)113 (14)−40 (18)136 (17)125 (16)−11 (23)−29 (−87 to 28)0.31
 Physiotherapists26 (8)26 (10)0 (0)51 (25)38 (16)−13 (17)13 (−22 to 48)0.46
 Psychologists3 (2)8 (4)5 (5)2 (1)6 (3)4 (3)1 (−10 to 11)0.93
 Other93 (6)81 (6)−12 (6)83 (6)78 (6)−5 (7)−7 (−24 to 11)0 47
 Total612 (30)773 (32)161 (32)624 (41)817 (35)193 (37)−32 (−126 to 61)0.51
Hospital inpatient (admissions)
 Cardiovascular, acute3655 (814)1656 (392)−1999 (828)3532 (914)1862 (312)−1670 (897)−329 (−2732 to 2072)0.78
 Cardiovascular, not acute1438 (151)675 (243)−763 (273)1931 (308)848 (294)−1083 (399)320 (−616 to 1258)0.51
 Thoracic surgery, acute3798 (813)469 (314)−3329 (837)2950 (818)446 (196)−2504 (847)−825 (−3158 to 1508)0.48
 Thoracic surgery, not acute28 902 (904)251 (136)−28 651 (913)28 091 (839)177 (145)−27 914 (839)−737 (−3187 to 1716)0.56
 Other, acute5143 (563)2682 (394)2461 (602)6649 (899)3904 (517)−2745 (1007)284 (−2017 to 2585)0.81
 Other, not acute1456 (225)1314 (236)−142 (317)2111 (724)705 (186)−1406 (757)1264 (−358 to 2883)0.13
 Total44 391 (1806)7048 (879)−37 343 (1766)45 264 (2173)7942 (847)−31 321 (2173)−22 (−5451 to 5406)0.99
Hospital outpatient (visits)
 Cardiology730 (59)909 (101)179 (114)658 (57)610 (78)−48 (86)227 (−47 to 503)0.11
 Thoracic surgery33 (8)184 (28)151 (27)43 (8)84 (17)41 (19)110 (46 to 177)<0.01
 Other1945 (265)2147 (303)202 (177)1734 (121)1868 (365)134 (333)68 (−672 to 807)0.86
 Total2707 (273)3240 (315)533 (209)2435 (139)2561 (376)126 (342)407 (−378 to 1191)0.29
Pharmaceuticals (drug categories)
 ACE-inhibitors9 (1.2)11 (1)2 (1)11 (2)12 (2)1 (1)2 (−1 to 6)0.23
 Antithrombotic29 (3)59 (18)30 (18)29 (2)34 (5)5 (8)25 (−14 to 65)0.21
 β-blockers15 (2)31 (2)16 (2)13 (2)27 (3)14 (3)2 (−4 to 9)0.47
 Spironolactone2 (1)5 (1)3 (1)3 (1)6 (1)3 (1)0 (−3 to 2)0.68
 Lipid modifying57 (12)86 (13)29 (9)44 (12)69 (14)25 (10)4 (−23 to 30)0.78
 Digoxin2 (1)3 (1)1 (1)2 (1)4 (1)2 (1)−1 (−4 to 1)0.21
 Diuretics24 (4)25 (2)1 (4)24 (3)25 (2)1 (3)0 (−10 to 10)0.99
 Vitamin K antagonists14 (2)60 (6)46 (6)17 (2)56 (7)39 (6)7 (−11 to 25)0.45
 Psycholeptics0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)5 (4)11 (5)6 (4)−6 (−13 to 2)0.12
 Antiarrythmics2 (0)6 (1)4 (1)3 (1)6 (1)3 (1)1 (−2 to 4)0.36
 Analgetics*13 (3)16 (3)3 (2)28 (8)29 (8)1 (6)2 (−10 to 13)0.76
 Other cardiovascular43 (6.3)25 (4)−18 (5)57 (8)24 (4)−33 (7)15 (−2 to 33)0.09
 Other medication256 (26)254 (24)−2 (15)305 (35)300 (28)−5 (23)3 (−51 to 57)0.91
 Total466 (34)581 (35)115 (30)541 (46)602 (39)61 (30)54 (−28 to 136)0.88
Total cost (healthcare)48 176 (1897)11 641 (960)−36 535 (1786)48 864 (1786)11 922 (1040)−36 943 (2225)408 (−5083 to 5896)0.89
Sick leave, weeks1320 (278)4424 (681)3104 (561)1079 (256)3260 (645)2181 (503)923 (−579 to 2426)0.23
Total costs (societal)49 496 (1965)16 065 (1191)−33 431 (1925)49 943 (2334)15 182 (1269)−34 761 (2290)1330 (−4427 to 7086)0.65
  • Values are mean costs (SE) and mean differences (95% CI).

  • *Includes analgetics and topical products with DDD value for joint and muscular pain.

  • CR, cardiac rehabilitation; DDD, defined daily doses.