Table 1

Patient characteristics

Paroxysmal AF (n=44)Persistent AF (n=36)p Value
Age (years)56.9±10.558.2±9.50.58
Male gender30 (68%)28 (78%)0.45
AF history (years)4.4±3.42.9±2.70.04
LA volume (mL)53.1±17.264.6±20.1<0.01
LVEF (%)54.4±2.250.9±7.80.02
Hypertension12 (27%)14 (39%)0.34
Diabetes2 (5%)5 (14%)0.23
Smoking22 (50%)17 (47%)0.83
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; LA, left atrial; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.