Table 1

Characteristics of studies included in meta-analysis

StudyPatients (n)LocationTime frameFollow-upPPIsPatient populationOutcomes availableDAT
Case–controlJuurlinket al46PPI: 170
No PPI: 407
Ontario, Canada4/2002–9/20086 monthsL, O, P, RCVAAll-cause mortality, CVA<9%
Case–controlValkhoffet al47PPI: 4793
No PPI:11 237
Netherlands1/1999–12/200842.6 monthsE, L, O, P, RMIMINA
Case–controlChing et al48PPI: 1128
No PPI: 2159
Connecticut, USA1/2004–11/20089 monthsE, L, O, P, RPCI with stentAll-cause mortality, MI, revascularisation (TVR)Yes
Case–controlJiang et al34PPI: 1570
No PPI: 1110
Nanjing, China1/2008–1/20111 yearE, L, OPCIGI bleedYes
Case–controlGarcia Rodriguez et al32PPI: 192
No PPI: 177
UK1/2000–12/2007>3.5 yearsE, L, O, P, RACSGI bleedNA
Retrospective cohortHo et al49PPI: 5244
No PPI: 2961
VA hospitals, USA8/2003–1/2006521 daysL, O, P, RACSAll-cause mortality, ACS, revascularisation∼90%
Retrospective cohortEvanchan et al50PPI: 1369
No PPI: 4425
Ohio, USA1/2003–1/20081 yearE, L, O, PStent after MIMINA
Retrospective cohortGaglia et al51PPI: 318
No PPI: 502
Washington DC, USA4/2003–4/20071 yearE, L, O, P, RPCI with DESAll-cause mortality, MI, revascularisation (TVR), STYes
Retrospective cohortGaspar et al52PPI: 274
No PPI: 528
Braga, Portugal1/2004–3/20086 monthsL, O, RACSAll-cause mortality, ACSYes
Retrospective cohortGupta et al53PPI: 72
No PPI: 243
Little Rock, AR, USA1/2003–8/20044 yearsL, O, RPCI with stentAll-cause mortality, revascularisation (TLR)>95%
Retrospective cohortKreutz et al54PPI: 6828
No PPI: 9862
Medco Health Database, USA10/2005–9/20061 yearE, L, O, P, RPCI with stentCV death, MI, ACS, revascularisation, CVANA
Retrospective cohortTentzeris et al55PPI: 691
No PPI: 519
Vienna, Austria1/2003–12/20067.8 monthsE, L, O, P, RPCI with stentAll-cause mortality, CV mortality, ACS, STYes
Retrospective cohortvan Boxel et al23PPI: 5734
No PPI:12 405
The Netherlands1/2006–12/20071–2 yearsE, L, O, P, RNAAll-cause mortality, MI, ACS, CVA∼78%
Retrospective cohortWu et al56PPI: 311
No PPI: 5551
Taiwan7/2002–6/20051 yearE, L, O, P, RACSACS, revascularisationNA
Retrospective cohortYasu et al57PPI: 103
No PPI: 188
Kamakura, Japan6/2006–3/2009395 daysRPCI with DESCV mortality, ACS, revascularisation, ST, GI bleedYes
Retrospective cohortMunoz-Torrero et al58PPI: 519
No PPI: 703
Spain3/2003–3/200915 monthsL, O, PAtherosclerotic diseaseAll-cause mortality, MI, CVA∼65%
Retrospective cohortHauptle et al33PPI: 87
No PPI: 631
Switzerland1/2005–12/20061 yearE, L, O, P, RPCI for ACSGI bleedYes
Retrospective cohortOrtolani et al59PPI: 3519
No PPI: 377
Emilia-Romagna, Italy1/2008–8/20081 yearE, L, O, P, RACSAll-cause mortality, ACS, revascularisation>91%
Retrospective cohortNakayama et al35PPI: 280
No PPI: 284
Tokyo, Japan1/2005–12/2009880 daysL, O, RPCIRevascularisation (TLR)Yes
Retrospective cohortZou et al36PPI: 6188
No PPI: 1465
Nanjing, China10/2005–9/20101 yearE, O, PACS with DESCV death, MI, revascularisation (TVR), STYes
CohortZairis et al60PPI: 340
No PPI: 248
Piraeus, Greece4/2003–1/20051 yearOPCI with stentCV mortality, MI, revascularisation, ST>97%
CohortHokimoto and Ogawa61PPI: 37
No PPI: 133
JapanNA1 yearRDATCV mortality, ACS, revascularisation, CVA, GI bleedYes
CohortHudzik et al62PPI: 18
No PPI: 20
Poland1/2006–7/20081 yearOPCI with stentMI, ACS, CVAYes
CohortBanerjee et al63PPI: 867
No PPI: 3678
Veteran Affairs Database, USA1/2003–12/20081 yearE, L, O, P, RPCI with stentAll-cause mortality, MI, revascularisationNA
CohortRossini et al64PPI: 1158
No PPI: 170
Northern ItalyNA1 yearL, O, PPCI with DESAll-cause mortality, STYes
CohortSimon et al22PPI: 1052
No PPI: 711
FranceNA1 yearE, L, O, PMIAll-cause mortalityNA
CohortChitose et al65PPI: 187
No PPI: 443
Multicenter, Japan6/2008–3/200918 monthsL, O, RPCI with stentCV mortality, MI, CVAYes
CohortDouglas et al31PPI: 12 439
No PPI:16 900
UK1/2003–7/2009303 daysE, L, OUK national databaseAll-cause mortality, CV mortality, MIYes
Post hoc analysis of RCTO'Donoghue et al66PPI: 2257
No PPI: 4538
Multinational<9/200715 monthsE, L, O, P, RPCI for ACS, >94% stentAll-cause mortality, CV mortality, MI, ST>96%
Post hoc analysis of RCTBurkard et al67PPI: 109
No PPI: 692
Basel, Switzerland5/2003–5/200436 monthsE, L, O, PPCI with stentAll-cause mortality, CV mortality, MI, revascularisation (TVR), ST>91%
Post hoc analysis of RCTGoodman et al68PPI: 3255
No PPI: 6021
Multinational10/2006–7/20081 yearE, L, O, P, RACSAll-cause mortality, CV mortality, ST>97%
PSM cohortHarjai et al19PPI: 685
No PPI: 685
Sayre, PA, USA7/2001–12/20076 monthsE, OPCIAll-cause mortality, MI, revascularisation (TVR), ST>98%
PSM cohortHsiao et al69PPI: 622
No PPI: 9131
Taiwan2000–2007>6 monthsE, L, O, P, RACSACSYes
PSM cohortAihara et al70PPI: 1068
No PPI: 819
Ibakari, Japan2/2006–8/20091 yearL, O, RPCI with stentAll-cause mortality, MI, revascularisation, ST, CVA, GI bleedYes
PSM cohortBhurke et al30PPI: 2958
No PPI: 7143
USA1/2001–12/2008268 daysE, L, O, P, RACSMI, revascularisationNA
PSM cohortLin et al71PPI: 5173
No PPI:31 926
Taiwan1/2006–12/007580 daysE, L, O, P, RACSACS, revascularisationNA
RCTBhatt et al7PPI: 1876
No PPI: 1885
Multinational1/2008–12/2008180 daysOACS or stentAll-cause mortality, CV mortality, MI, revascularisation, CVA, GI bleedYes
RCTHsu et al24PPI: 83
No PPI: 82
Taiwan8/2008–1/20106 monthsEHistory of GI ulcerMI, ACS, CVANA
RCTHsu72PPI: 157
No PPI: 161
Taiwan1/2008–11/20106 monthsEHistory of GI ulcerGI bleedNA
  • ACS: acute coronary syndrome; CV: cardiovascular; CVA: cerebrovascular accident; DAT: dual antiplatelet therapy; DES: drug-eluting stent E: esomeprazole; GI: gastrointestinal; L: lansoprazole; MI: myocardial infarction; NA: not available or not applicable; O: omeprazole; P: pantoprazole; PCI: percutaneous coronary intervention; PPI: proton pump inhibitor; PSM: propensity score matched; R: rabeprazole; RCT: randomised controlled trial; ST: stent thrombosis; TLR: target lesion revascularisation; TVR: target vessel revascularisation.