Table 3

Characteristics by long-term mortality (missing data for 2 patients)

FactorAlive at FU
N=28
Dead at FU
N=21
Univariate HR
(95% CI)
p Value
Age ≥53 years, n (%)9 (32.1)15 (71.4)1.22 (0.25 to 2.20)0.01
Male, n (%)19 (67.9)11 (52.4)−0.60 (−1.48 to 0.28)0.18
Oceanic*, n (%)24 (85.7)17 (81.0)−0.20 (−1.30 to 0.90)0.73
Charlson's score >3, n (%)4 (14.3)16 (76.2)1.54 (0.52 to 2.55)<0.01
Chronic renal replacement therapy, n (%)03 (14.3)−0.56 (−2.58 to 1.47)0.55
Left-sided IE, n (%)25 (89.3)20 (95.2)0.15 (−1.88 to 2.18)0.89
Native valve IE, n (%)20 (71.4)12 (57.1)0.57 (−0.53 to 1.63)0.31
Aetiology of valve disease, n (%)†−0.65 (−1.67 to 0.36)0.21
 Rheumatic heart disease12 (42.9)5 (28.8)
 Degenerative3 (10.7)9 (42.9)
 Congenital4 (14.3)2 (9.5)
 Functional1 (3.6)1 (4.8)
Healthcare-related IE, n (%)1 (3.6)7 (33.3)0.61 (−0.35 to 1.58)0.21
Microbiology, n (%)
Streptococcus spp11 (39.3)2 (9.5)−35.45 (−3.9×107 to 3.9×107)0.001
Staphylococcus aureus4 (14.3)12 (57.1)1.11 (0.21 to 2.00)0.01
Acute heart failure, n (%)9 (32.1)7 (33.3)−0.28 (−1.24 to 0.69)0.58
Severe valve regurgitation, n (%)10 (35.7)4 (19.0)−0.82 (−1.93 to 0.29)0.15
Neurological complication, n (%)13 (46.4)10 (47.6)0.04 (−0.83 to 0.92)0.92
Shock, n (%)2 (7.1)5 (23.8)
Vegetation length ≥15 mm, n (%)5 (17.9)5 (23.8)−0.12 (−1.94 to 0.85)0.81
Perivalvular complications‡, n (%)2 (7.1)3 (14.3)−0.91 (−2.94 to 1.11)0.38
Cardiac surgery, n (%)16 (57.1)5 (23.8)−1.29 (−2.33 to −0.25)0.02
  • *Indigenous Melanesians and Polynesians.

  • †Analysis of RHD versus other aetiologies.

  • ‡Abscess or fistula on echocardiogram (no pseudoaneurysm noted). FU.

  • IE, infective endocarditis; FU, follow-up; RHD, rheumatic heart disease.